Hier der OED-Eintrag:
Inflections: Pa. tense took /tʊk/ ; pa. pple. taken /ˈteɪk(ə)n/ .
Forms: Illustration of Forms and Inflexions. Take is, like shake, forsake... (Show More)
Etymology: Late Old English tacan, tóc, *tacen, < Old Norse taka, tók, tekinn (Old Swedish ... (Show More)
The earliest known use of this verb in the Germanic languages was app. to express the physical action ‘to put the hand on’, ‘to touch’—the only known sense of Gothic têkan. By a natural advance, such as is seen in English in the use of ‘lay hands upon’, the sense passed to ‘lay hold upon, lay hold of, grip, grasp, seize’—the essential meaning of Old Norse taka, of Middle Dutch taken, and of the material senses of take in English. By the subordination of the notion of the instruments, and even of the physical action, to that of the result, take becomes in its essence ‘to transfer to oneself by one's own action or volition (anything material or non-material)’. This becomes then the general or ordinary sense of the verb, which falls into two main divisions, take in the sense of ‘seize, grip’, hence ‘appropriate’, and take in the sense of ‘receive or accept what is handed to one’. Subordinate to these are the non-material senses of ‘assume, adopt, apprehend, comprehend, comprise, contain’. For the common element of all these notions take is the simple and proper term, for which no simpler can be substituted. It is one of the elemental words of the language, of which the only direct explanation is to show the thing or action to which they are applied.Take also enters into a great number of idiomatic phrases, which are often difficult to analyse. Many of these are parallel to, and influenced by French phrases with prendre: see F. H. Sykes, French Elements in ME., Oxford 1899.
General arrangement of senses: I. To touch. II. To seize, grip, catch. III. Ordinary current sense, i. with material obj.; ii. with non-material obj. IV. To choose, take for a purpose, into use. V. To derive, obtain from a source. VI. To receive, accept, admit, contain. VII. To apprehend mentally, comprehend. VIII. To undertake, perform, make. IX. To convey, conduct, deliver, apply or betake oneself, go. X. Idiomatic uses with special obj. XI. Intransitive uses with preposition. XII. Adverbial combinations = compound verbs. XIII. Idiomatic phrases.
†1. To touch (intr. with on, also trans.: = ON. taka á, and taka). Obs.
a1150 MS 303 Corp. Chr. Coll. Cambr. 178 (Napier) Soðlice þæt ilce ele is swa mihtig & swa strange þæt swa hwæt swa hit on tæcþ, þærrihtes hit eall forbærnð.
a1150 MS 303 Corp. Chr. Coll. Cambr. 179 (Napier) Sona swa þæt ele toc on þæt wæter, þa aras þær upp swiðe mycel fyr.
c1250 Old Kent. Serm. in Old Eng. Misc. 31 Ure lord him seide and spredde his hond, and tok his lepre.
a1300 Cursor M. 10969 (Cott.) , I and mi wijf on ald tas.
a1325 (1250) Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 3456 Abute ðis munt ðu merke ma[k]e; If erf or man ðor-one take, It dead ðolen.
1340 Ayenbite (1866) 91 Be zyȝþe, be hyerþe, be smellinge, be zuelȝynge, and be takynge.
II. To seize, grasp, capture, catch, and related senses.
* in literal and physical sense.
(a) trans. To lay hold upon, get into one's hands by force or artifice; to seize, capture, esp. in war; to make prisoner; hence, to get into one's power, to win by conquest (a fort, town, country). Also, to apprehend (a person charged with an offence), to arrest; to seize (property) by legal process, as by distraint, etc. See also to take by storm at storm n. 5b.
c1100 Anglo-Saxon Chron. ann. 1072 (MS. D) , Se kyng nam heora scypa & wæpna,‥& þa menn ealle he toc, & dyde of heom þæt he wolde.
c1100 Anglo-Saxon Chron. ann. 1072 ann. 1076, Ac se kyngc‥hine let syððan tacan.
1154 Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Laud) anno 1140, And te Lundenissce folc hire wolde tæcen.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 5948, & tatt he siþþenn takenn wass. All gilltelaes. & bundenn. & naȝȝledd upp o rodetre.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 18554 Als prisun þai him tok for-þi.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 4896 Lok þai alle be tain and bonden.
c1400 Rom. Rose 5894 My modir is of gret prowesse; She hath tan many a fortresse.
c1460 Brut 524 Þei londed & come to Sandwych‥& toke the town, & ryfled & dispoyled it.
a1500 (1450) Merlin (1899) i. 13 The Iuges made hir to be taken, and brought hir be-fore them.
1526 Bible (Tyndale) Matt. iv. 12 When Iesus had herde that Ihon was taken, he departed in to Galile.
1600 E. Blount tr. G. F. di Conestaggio Hist. Uniting Portugall to Castill 184 Hauing quietly taken the other two gallions, they entred within the Porte.
1658 A. Cokayne Trappolin i. i, in Small Poems 425 He is your brothers prisoner‥That in the wars of Mantoa was took.
1736 T. Lediard Life Marlborough I. 180 The English took about 200 Prisoners.
1803 Pic Nic No. 8. 6, I was taken into custody.
1854 J. S. C. Abbott Napoleon (1855) II. 372, I took two guns and retook two.
(b) Criminals' slang. To break into in order to burgle, to rob.
1926 J. Black You can't Win xxi. 331 After gathering every scrap of information available, I was sure I could ‘take’ the spot if I got a fair break on the luck.
1930 D. Runyon in Liberty 8 Nov. 24/2 Someone takes a jewellery store in the town.
b. To catch, capture (a wild beast, bird, fish, etc.); also of an animal, to seize or catch (prey).
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 13504 Rihht alls an hunnte takeþþ der. Wiþþ hise ȝæpe racchess.
a1325 (1250) Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 3323 Ðor migte euerilc man fugeles taken.
c1400 Mandeville's Trav. (Roxb.) v. 15 Þai take wylde bestes riȝt wele.
1509 S. Hawes Pastime of Pleasure (1845) xxxi. 154 Wo worth the beaute which toke me in snare.
1563 B. Googe Eglogs sig. Fiii, By hydden hooke, The symple fole is tane.
1648 Hunting of Fox 23 They keep packs of dogs, or Beagles, on purpose to take them by hunting.
1801 J. Strutt Glig-gamena Angel-ðeod i. ii. 33 The present methods of taking fish.
1892 Longman's Mag. Nov. 87 They are readily taken by nets.
1899 H. R. Haggard Swallow iii, The women and the little ones‥were taken by wild beasts.
c. subj. in imprecations.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lvii. 192 Mahounde take his soule!
a1616 Shakespeare As you like It (1623) iii. ii. 209 Nay, but the diuell take mocking: speake sadde brow, and true maid.
1749 H. Fielding Tom Jones III. vii. xii. 94 The Devil take my Father for sending me thither.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. 17 298/1 Here he comes again!—deuce take him.
1856 C. Reade Never too Late l, The devil take the hindmost.
d. In various games, as chess, cards, etc.: To capture (an adversary's piece, card, etc.) so as to put it out of play; also (Cards) to gain possession of (a trick): see trick n. (Also said of the piece, card, etc., by which the taking is effected).
c1440 Gesta Rom. (Harl.) xxi. 71 Whenne he [the pawn at chess] goth aside, he takith anoþer.
c1460 (1400) Tale of Beryn (1887) l. 1812 The next drauȝt aftir, he toke a roke for nauȝte.
1562 tr. Damiano da Odemira Pleasaunt Playe of Cheasts sig. Bivv, Thou shalt take his knight with thy Quene.
1735 J. Bertin Noble Game of Chess 55 The king takes the queen.
1840 Peter Parley's Ann. 1 263 A pawn takes the enemy angularly.
e. Cricket. To catch (the ball) off the bat so as to put the batsman ‘out’ (also with the batsman as obj.); of the bowler, To ‘capture’ (a wicket) by striking it with the ball (or otherwise).
1846 W. Denison Cricket 71 The greatest number of wickets he succeeded in taking in one match was 11.
1870 Times 11 July 10/5 Mr. Law was taken easily at the wicket with the score at 22.
1882 Daily Tel. 17 May, A minute or two later Walker was smartly taken at the wicket off Garrett.
1882 Daily Tel. 24 June, Lucas, who had been fielding at long-off, running at full speed, managed to take it [the ball].
1883 Daily Tel. 15 May 2/7 He was‥taken at cover-point by Woof.
1890 Field 10 May 672/2 Studd‥was then beautifully taken at long-off.
3. To lay hold of, grasp (with the hand, arms, etc.); to seize and hold. to take in one's arms , to embrace. Often const. by the hand, head, horns, tail, etc.: see hand n.1 49, bull n.1 1c. Cf. also take hold vb. at sense 69.
a1225 Juliana 70 He rende his claðes ant toc him seoluen bi þe top.
a1300 Cursor M. 2364 (Cott.) , Ta loth þi broþer sun in hand, To chanaan ȝee most now drau.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1871) III. 147 To my Crist, whos riȝt hond I haue i-take.
1393 Langland Piers Plowman C. xxii. 170 Crist‥took thomas by þe hand.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) l. 4357 She toke him aboute þe necke wiþ þis And profered hir mouþ to kis.
?1511 Treat. Joseph of Armathy (de Worde) sig. A.iv, He toke me by the hande and soo ledde me in myn house.
1602 W. Watson Decacordon 117 He tooke him by the sleeve, as they were in going over a stile.
1709 R. Steele & J. Addison Tatler No. 114. ¶1 He took me by the Hand.
1825 New Monthly Mag. 14 361, I took her hand and kissed her.
1890 F. Barrett Between Life & Death III. 106 He took her in his arms.
a. intr. Of a hook, a mechanical device, etc.: To catch, engage: usually const. into.
a1500 (1400) Sir Torrent of Portyngale (1887) l. 1608 Sith he pullith at his croke, So fast in to the flesh it toke.
1730 J. T. Desaguliers in Philos. Trans. 1729–30 (Royal Soc.) 36 197 The Pall or Lever‥does so communicate with the Catch, that‥the Catch always takes.
1797 Encycl. Brit. IX. 9 The teeth of these four wheels take alternately into the teeth of four racks.
1825 J. Nicholson Operative Mechanic 310 The next tooth of the pinion will take into the gap in the end of the rack.
1825 J. Nicholson Operative Mechanic 513 These pins take into holes in the plate, made exactly to fit them.
1856 E. K. Kane Arctic Explor. II. xxvi. 262 A floe, taking upon a tongue of ice‥, began to swing upon it like a pivot.
b. trans. Of a mechanical appliance, etc.: To ‘lay hold of’; to act upon by contact, adhesion, or the like.
1659 J. Leak tr. I. de Caus New Inventions Water-works 25 So as the Saws may take the said peece again.
1849 A. Pellatt Curiosities of Glass Making 94 The punty takes the flat end by adhesion.
1894 Harper's Mag. July 191/2 The blades no longer take the water together.
a. trans. To strike, hit, impinge upon (a person, etc.), usually in, on (across, over, etc.) some part; also with the part as obj.; = catch v. 11.[The notion here seems to have been originally to catch or get at a person by means of the part named, which catches the blow that otherwise might have passed.]
1488 (1478) Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) iii. l. 175 As he glaid by aukwart he couth him ta.
1488 (1478) Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) i. l. 403 Wallas with it [the poutstaff] fast on the cheik him tuk.
1509 S. Hawes Pastime of Pleasure (1845) xl. 202 Unto me than he came full softely, And with his staffe he toke me on the brest.
c1540 Destr. Troy 8224 Ector turnet with tene, toke hym on þe hed.
1597 Shakespeare Richard III i. iv. 151 Take him ouer the costard with the hilts of thy sword.
1670 C. Cotton tr. G. Girard Hist. Life Duke of Espernon ii. v. 201 He was‥taken upon the head with a stone.
1719 D. Defoe Life Robinson Crusoe 52 The Blow taking my Side and Breast, beat the Breath as it were quite out of my Body.
1748 B. Robins & R. Walter Voy. round World by Anson i. x. 104 A mountainous‥sea took us upon our starboard quarter.
1795 Hist. in Ann. Reg. 70/1 A masked battery took them in flank.
1806 J. Beresford Miseries Human Life I. vi. 107 The kick of a horse‥took me across the ribs.
1891 Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. 150 651/2 When a sheep runs amuck, he is‥a living catapult, that, if he took you fair, would knock the life out of you.
1893 Chambers's Jrnl. 3 June 350/1 The ball took him squarely between the eyes.
b. With double obj.: e.g. to take any one a blow .
1448 J. Gloys in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) II. 28 He‥toke his master on the hepe suyche a stroke that‥brake his hepe.
a1593 Marlowe Tragicall Hist. Faustus (1604) sig. D2v, Cursed be he that took Friar Sandelo a blow on the pate.
a1616 Shakespeare Taming of Shrew (1623) iii. iii. 36 This mad-brain'd bridegroome tooke him such a cuffe.
a1616 Shakespeare Measure for Measure (1623) ii. i. 174 If he tooke you a box o'th'eare.
1781 C. Johnstone Hist. John Juniper II. 161 Taking him a blow full in the pit of his stomach.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. colloq. The ball took me an awful whack on the chest.
6. absol. or intr.
a. Of a plant, seed, or graft: To ‘get hold’ of that on which it grows; to take root, ‘strike’, germinate, begin to grow. Also, in Med., of animal tissue, etc.: to continue in a healthy state after being transplanted.
c1440 Pallad. on Husb. ii. 153 In reed erthe ek a vyne is hard to take.
c1440 Pallad. on Husb. iii. 576 But euery day me most hit delue & wete Vntil hit take.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 747/1 A yonge plante or sette begynneth to take whan it groweth up.
1660 J. Childrey Britannia Baconica 14 Fruit fails in one countrey, and takes in another.
1712 J. James tr. A.-J. Dézallier d'Argenville Theory & Pract. Gardening 184 The Oak being in its own Nature very difficult to take again.
1802 W. Forsyth Treat. Fruit Trees i. 2 The Cherry and Plum will never take upon each other‥but the Apricot will take upon all sorts of Plums.
1875 Lancet 23 Jan. 124/3 The transplanted pieces of skin‥were found to have ‘taken’ remarkably well.
1891 Cosmopolitan Nov. 87/2 Patches where the seed has failed to take.
1892 Field 10 Dec. 883/3 We planted a thousand cedars of Lebanon, with shoots 6 in. high, and we have no doubt that they will take well.
1936 Anat. Rec. LXIV. 167 Young donors supply material that is more likely to ‘take’.
1977 Time (Europe ed.) 7 Mar. 43/2 Odds that a transplanted cadaveric kidney will ‘take’ are usually no better than 50%.
b. Of ink, etc.: To adhere to the paper, parchment, etc.
1883 R. Haldane Workshop Receipts 2nd Ser. 192/1 The use of ox-gall, which makes the ink ‘take’, has also the disadvantage of making it frequently ‘run’.
c. Of ice: to form (esp. in a lake, river, etc.). Cf. sense 44d below. dial. and N. Amer.
1825 Kingston (Upper Canada) Chron. 4 Feb. 3/2 On Saturday night last, the ice took between Kingston and Long Island.
a1876 E. Leigh Gloss. Words Dial. Cheshire (1877) 206 ‘The ice is taking’ means it is beginning to freeze.
1881 Edmonton Bull. 28 Mar. 1/2 Ice took in the Saskatchewan on the 19th of November.
1931 G. L. Nute Voyageur 79 Seines were set in the water just before the ice ‘took’ on the lake or river.
d. Of a lamb: to be accepted by a foster mother in place of her own dead lamb.
1874 T. Hardy Far from Madding Crowd I. xviii. 204 Mistress and man were engaged in the operation of making a lamb ‘take’, which is performed whenever an ewe has lost her own offspring, one of the twins of another ewe being given her as substitute.
** with either the action or the agent non-material.
a. trans. Of a disease, a pain, an injurious or destructive agency, natural or supernatural, magical, etc.; also of a notion, fancy, feeling, etc.: To affect, seize, lay hold of, attack. Also in imprecations, as ‘pest’ or ‘plague take him’.
a1300 Cursor M. 11823 (Cott.) , Wit þe crache him tok the scurf [Trin. Þe ȝicche toke him sikerly].
a1325 Prose Psalter xlvii. 5 Drede toke hem.
1450–80 tr. Secreta Secret. 31 Than mayst thou ete‥as thyn appetit takith the.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lvii. 194 For a colyke that hath taken me in the ryght syde.
a1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) iv. iii. sig. F.iijv, A mischiefe take his tokens.
a1566 R. Edwards Damon & Pythias (1571) sig. Hiij, A plague take Damon and Pithias.
1581 G. Pettie tr. S. Guazzo Ciuile Conuersat. (1586) i. 12 b, Moued by some sodaine toie which taketh them in the head.
1604 E. Grimeston tr. J. de Acosta Nat. & Morall Hist. Indies vii. xxiii. 565 Fire tooke the Temple.
a1616 Shakespeare Merry Wives of Windsor (1623) iv. iv. 31 He blasts the tree, and takes the cattle.
1661 A. Cowley Disc. Cromwell in Wks. (1710) II. 664 Now the Freak takes him.
1707 J. Mortimer Whole Art Husbandry 173 No Beast will eat sour Grass till the Frost hath taken it.
1889 Temple Bar Dec. 451 An intense weariness of life took him.
1892 Cassell's Family Mag. Aug. 515/2 What in the name of wonder has taken the girl?
1893 National Observer 7 Oct. 542/2 He admired as the humour took him.
1603 Shakespeare Hamlet i. i. 144 Then no planet rikes, No Fairie takes, nor Witch hath powre to charme.
b. pass. To be seized, attacked, or affected (with disease, a fit, fancy, etc.); to ‘have an attack’ of something.
a1300 Cursor M. 8915 (Cott.) , Sco es wode and wit war~lagh tan [Trin. wiþ fende Itake].
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1876) VI. 157 He was i-take with sikenesse and deyde.
c1440 Promp. Parv. 261/2 Infectyn‥as menne take wythe pestylence.
1526 Bible (Tyndale) Matt. iv. 24 All sicke people, that were taken with diuers diseases and gripinges.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xlviii. 162 He was taken in loue.
1578 H. Lyte tr. R. Dodoens Niewe Herball 609 The astonied members, or limmes taken with colde.
1681 Dryden Spanish Fryar iii. i 30, I am taken on the sudden with a grievous swimming in my Head.
1865 Dickens Our Mutual Friend II. iv. xiii. 267 Mrs. Boffin was then taken with a laughing fit of clapping her hands, and clapping her knees.
1888 ‘F. Warden’ Witch of Hills I. xiii. 273, I was going to be taken with a fit.
c. pass. (ellipt.) To have a seizure or attack; to be seized with sudden illness, pain, disease, numbness, or other affection (physical or mental). ? Obs. exc. dial.
1450–1530 Myrr. our Ladye 29 Where the soule was take a non & sore tormented longe tyme togidre.
1568 W. Turner Herbal (rev. ed.) iii. 40 Good for membres that are num or taken.
1607 G. Markham Cavelarice vii. 24 A Horse that is taken our common Farriers say to be planet strooke.
c1642 Ld. Herbert in Life (1770) 45 Others‥standing stiff and stark‥seem as if they were taken in their joynts.
d. pass. with adj. compl., as to be taken ill (formerly blind, hoarse, lame) , to be seized or struck with illness, etc. Rarely in active: see quot. ?13.. at sense 63a. Also humorously (quot. 1839).
c1400 (1380) Pearl (Nero) l. 1157 No thyng myȝt me dere To fech me bar & take me halte.
1588 R. Parke tr. J. G. de Mendoza Hist. Kingdome of China 48 Whatsoeuer children be borne a creeple‥or by sicknes be taken lame.
1657 W. Rand tr. P. Gassendi Mirrour of Nobility i. 64 Being soon after taken blind.
1664 J. Wilson Cheats v. iii. 69 Being taken very ill of a sudden.
1711 R. Steele Spectator No. 96. ⁋2 Master Harry was taken very ill of a Fever.
1801 M. Edgeworth Forester in Moral Tales I. 25 She was taken ill in the night.
1839 Dickens Nicholas Nickleby xxviii. 270 ‘Oh, charming!’ interrupted Kate's patroness, who was sometimes taken literary.
1891 Harper's Mag. Apr. 750/1 He was taken hoarse at the last moment.
e. intr. for pass., with compl., as to take ill = to be taken ill, to fall or become ill. Also humorously (quot. 18902). colloq. and dial.
1674 N. Fairfax Treat. Bulk & Selvedge 131 A woman‥who took with child in the very fit of a Third Ague.
1822 J. Hodgson in Raine Mem. (1857) I. 400 My father-in-law took ill.
1890 J. Healy Insula Sanctorum 317 He took sick and died in the island.
1890 Illustr. London News 29 Nov. 686/3 Then, too, he took studious, and‥pored over great tomes and learned things.
1903 Trevelyan in Independent Rev. Dec. 409 Mr. William Pitt‥took ill and died after Austerlitz.
f. intr. To catch, catch hold: esp. of fire, to seize upon combustible substances, to be kindled, begin burning; also of a condition, humour, fancy, etc. (cf. 10c). Now rare.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. clviii. 192 All the base court was afyre, so that the fyre‥toke into the couerynge of a great towre couered with rede.
1639 S. Du Verger tr. J. P. Camus Admir. Events 110 Rottennesse takes sooner in apples, which are bruised.
a1661 W. Brereton Trav. (1844) 43 The fire first took in rape-oil.
1700 T. Brown Amusem. Serious & Comical v. 52 When any Humour Takes in London.
1803 Ann. Rev. 2 189/1 The tinder was ready, and the spark took.
a. trans. To ‘catch’ or come upon (any one) in some action or situation; fig. to catch or detect in (†with) a fault or error. to take tardy: see tardy adj. 2a.The first two quotations connect this with sense 2.
[a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1871) III. 227 Pomphilia‥was i-take into [v.r. in] leccherie.]
c1475 (1400) Apol. Lollard Doctr. (1842) 6 Many popis han synnyd, and ben snybbid; and sum tan in heresy and deposid.
1577 M. Hanmer tr. Eusebius in Aunc. Eccl. Hist. v. xii. 86 By reasoninge with this olde Apelles, I tooke him with many falsehoodes.
1597 T. Morley Plaine & Easie Introd. Musicke 95 In which fault you haue beene nowe thrise taken.
?1602 Narcissus (Rawl. Poet. 212) (1893) 91 What was that I tooke you all a gabling tother day?
1607 R. Johnson Pleas. Conceites Old Hobson (Percy Soc.) 15 His man seeing himselfe so taken napping, for a time stood amazed.
1652 J. Gaule Πυς-μαντια 331 The poore Astrologers: who had already been taken with so many lies.
1668 T. Shadwell Sullen Lovers i. 3, I am glad I've taken you within, I come on purpose to tell you the newes, d'ye hear it.
1885 ‘L. Malet’ Col. Enderby's Wife vii. ii, The doctor was not easily taken off his guard.
b. To come upon suddenly, overtake, catch. Obs. or arch. exc. in certain phrases: see take short adj., n., and adv., take by surprise n., take at unawares adv.
[c1400 (1390) Sir Gawain & Green Knight (1940) l. 1811 Iche tolke mon do as he is tan, tas to non ille, ne pine.]
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xlviii. 161 At last a wynd toke them whether they wolde or not.
1569 R. Grafton Chron. II. 210 A tempest toke them in the sea, that put them so farre out of their course.
1611 Bible (A.V.) Ecclus. xxxvi. 26 A man that‥lodgeth wheresoeuer the night taketh him.
1890 W. C. Russell Ocean Trag. II. xxi. 181 We were at breakfast when the first of the wind took us.
c. slang. To swindle, cheat, or deprive of money by extortion. Freq. const. for.
1927 Vanity Fair Nov. 134/3 When a patron in a night club is ‘clipped’ he isn't punched, he's ‘taken’ or ‘gypped’ out of some currency or he is overcharged.
1930 D. Hammett Dain Curse xii. 122 They landed Mrs Rodman.‥ They took her for one of her apartment buildings.
1956 S. Bellow Seize Day i. 9 They make millions. They have smart lawyers.‥ Whereas I got taken.
1968 ‘L. Marshall’ Blood on Blotter xxvii. 183 ‘How much did you take him for?’ ‘Slade? Plenty.’
1970 Washington Post 30 Sept. b12/4 It looks to me like yo're fixin' to git took for the dollar an' thirty cents, Shuffy.
1978 J. B. Hilton Some run Crooked ix. 86 It wasn't enough for Julie just to admit she'd been taken.
1982 ‘E. Lathen’ Green grow Dollars xiv. 112 ‘I told Mary to take them for every penny she could get,’ he said stoutly.
d. Motor Racing. To overtake (a competitor).
1977 Custom Car Nov. 14/2 Jimmy Smith‥finally took Falcone, who had developed trouble, and stayed ahead to win the race.
1978 Guardian Weekly 12 Mar. 23/5 The South African Grand Prix.‥ Peterson (Lotus) shadowed the leader right to the end, taking him on a bend in the last lap for victory.
†a. To take to task; to reprehend, rebuke. Obs.
b. To check, ‘pull up’, interrupt. dial. (Cf. to take up at Phrasal verbs 1.)
c1250 Old Kent. Serm. in Old Eng. Misc. 32 Þo a-ros up ure lord and tok þane wynd and þo [MS. to] see; and al-so raþe hit was stille.
a1586 Sir P. Sidney Arcadia (1593) iv. sig. Mm3v, And therewith taking himselfe‥sayde he.
1637 S. Rutherford Lett. (1863) I. xcviii. 251 But this is my infirmity. By His grace I take myself in these ravings.
a. To catch the fancy or affection of; to excite a liking in; to captivate, delight, charm; to ‘fetch’.
[implied in: B. Jonson Volpone i. iv. 97 That colour Shall make it much more taking. [at taking adj. 2]
1616 B. Jonson Epicoene i. i. 100 in Wks. I, Such sweet neglect more taketh me, Then all th' adulteries of art.
1623 B. Jonson in Shakespeare Comedies, Histories & Tragedies sig. A4v, Those flights vpon the bankes of Thames, That so did take Eliza, and our Iames!
1656 Earl of Monmouth tr. T. Boccalini Polit. Touch-stone (1674) 289 With a readiness that much took all the Literati.
1686 W. de Britaine Humane Prudence (ed. 3) iv. 15 Take the Vulgar by your Civilities.
1830 Tennyson Owl ii. i, Thy tuwhoos‥Which upon the dark afloat, So took echo with delight.
1890 F. Barrett Between Life & Death II. xxi. 78 You took the whole audience.
1891 G. D. Galton La Fenton I. viii. 193 Scarcely the man to take the fancy of a very young girl.
b. pass. const. with, less usually by. Also without const.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Prov. vi. C, Lest thou be taken with hir fayre lokes.
1622 Bacon Hist. Raigne Henry VII 153 King James‥taken by Perkins amiable and alluring behaviour‥entertained him‥as became the person of Richard Duke of Yorke.
1641 W. Mountagu in Buccleuch MSS (Hist. MSS Comm.) (1899) I. 286 The King and Queen seemed to be much taken with‥the entertainment.
1798 C. Smith Young Philosopher IV. 110, I was quite taken with the spirit and beauty of the young gentlewoman.
1867 T. Carlyle Reminisc. (1881) II. 23 He was much taken with my little Jeannie, as he well might be.
1969 ‘E. Ferrars’ Skeleton Staff iii. 61 ‘Not enormously taken, are you?’ ‘Not bowled over.’
1978 P. H. Johnson Good Husband iii. 24 But about Ann…you were very taken, weren't you?
c. absol. or intr. to take = to take the fancy, win favour, gain acceptance; esp. to win popular favour, become popular.
1641 Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia sig. A3v, It tooke best with the people.
1655 H. Vaughan Silex Scintillans (ed. 2) Pref. sig. A4v, Nothing takes (as they rightly phrase it) like a Romance.
1762 H. Walpole Vertue's Anecd. Painting I. vii. 139 The whim took; he repeated the practice.
1817 M. R. Mitford in A. G. L'Estrange Life M. R. Mitford (1870) II. i. 4 The new melodrame‥takes mightily.
1842 J. A. Kasson Let. 22 Nov. in Virginia Mag. Hist. & Biogr. (1948) LVI. 418 A person, male or female, that relishes society and can talk, will take well.
1858 G. Meredith Let. 28 Apr. (1970) I. 35 Translate that placard. It would take.
1963 Listener 14 Mar. 457/1 Jazz has ‘taken’ in Africa.
1981 D. Martin in Martin & Mullen No Alternative ii. 19 The appeal to primitive practices can obscure the pressures of today which make such practices ‘take’ with a section of the clergy.
d. trans. To attract and hold, to ‘catch’ (a person's eye or attention).
1754 S. Richardson Hist. Sir Charles Grandison (1781) V. i. 6 We‥took the Bishop's eye. He came to us.
1842 W. Whewell in J. M. Douglas Life & Corr. W. Whewell (1881) 279, I am not surprised that your attention was taken by the examination papers.
1881 Scribner's Monthly 21 268/1 Some one took Horton's attention for a moment.
1889 Eng. Illustr. Mag. Dec. 268 My eye was taken by something bright.
a. intr. Of a plan, operation, etc.: To have the intended result; to succeed, be effective, take effect, ‘come off’. (See also 10c.)
1622 Bacon Hist. Raigne Henry VII 63 The temporarie Fruit of the Parliament in their aide and aduice giuen for Britaine, tooke not, nor prospered not.
1633 P. Massinger New Way to pay Old Debts v. i. sig. L, It may be Sweet heart, my proiect tooke.
1646 H. Lawrence Of Communion & Warre with Angels 98 This temptation tooke.
1658 J. Burbury tr. Gualdo Priorato Hist. Christina Queen of Swedland 287 This machine was full of fire-workes, which took very handsomly.
1701 W. Wotton Hist. Rome 356 The design took and the Fellow got away.
1800–24 T. Campbell Ritter Bann xxxi, The treachery took: she waited wild.
1941 B. Schulberg What makes Sammy Run? xi. 203 She was married.‥ The year she came out. But it didn't take.
1978 D. Bloodworth Crosstalk xv. 123 [Operation] Crosstalk can do no good whatsoever unless it takes, and‥this move against Sviridov‥shows it has taken.
†b. In weakened or indefinite sense: To have a result of some kind; to turn out, eventuate. Obs.
a1625 J. Fletcher Humorous Lieut. iii. vii, in F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher Comedies & Trag. (1647) sig. Rrr3v/2, Did I not tell you how 'twould take?
1648 C'tess Lindsey in Buccleuch MSS (Hist. MSS Comm.) (1899) I. 309 My son Paston is in town about a match for his son; how it will take I know not.
c. Of a medicine, inoculation, etc.: To take hold, take effect, prove operative or effective. Also fig.
1631 B. Jonson Staple of Newes v. iii. 49 in Wks. II, If all succeed well, and my simples take.
1853 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 14 i. 253 To see if the previous inoculation would still take.
1897 S. L. Hinde Fall Congo Arabs 61 The vaccine from Europe,—unfortunately none of it took.
1906 E. Dyson Fact'ry 'Ands iii. 29 Fuzzy's love was the mysterious and unhallowed growth of a moment. Sarah‥had beguiled him with her Ethiopian grin and glances of matured coyness.‥ In the words of Benno the wise, ‘It took like er vaccination’.
1951 G. Greene End of Affair v. iv. 201 ‘He did it there and then.’‥ ‘Did what?’ ‘Baptized her a Catholic.‥ I always had a wish that it would ‘take’. Like vaccination.’
III. Weakened sense of ‘seize’, with elimination of the notion of force or art: the ordinary current sense.
* With a material object, with physical action distinct.
12. trans. To perform the voluntary physical act by which one gets (something) into one's hand or hold; to transfer to oneself by one's own physical act. (Now the main sense.)
a. with the instrumentality of the hand or hands explicitly or implicitly indicated.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 135 He toc hiss recle fatt onn hand. & ȝede inn to þe temmple.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 1374 Þou sal tak þis pepins thre, Þat I toke o þat appel tre.
c1375 Cursor M. (Fairf.) 21529 Siþen he toke [Cott. & Gött. nam] a spade in hande.
1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Rolls) VII. 77 Anoon as he hadde i-take þe knyf all þe ymages gonne to grucche and to aryse.
c1400 (1391) Chaucer Treat. Astrolabe (Cambr. Dd.3.53) (1872) ii. §29. 39 Tak thanne thyn Astrolabie with bothe handes.
1450 W. Lomner in Four C. Eng. Lett. (1880) 4 And toke a rusty sword.
?1473 Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Recuyell Hist. Troye (1894) I. Pref. lf. 1v, forthwith toke penne and ynke and began [etc.].
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lix. 207 Take thy vyall, and geue vs a songe.
1608 E. Topsell Hist. Serpents 6 If a Man take a Snake or a Serpent into his handling.
1611 Bible (A.V.) John xxi. 13 Iesus then commeth, and taketh bread, and giueth them.
1799 Wordsworth Lucy Gray vi, He plied his work;—and Lucy took The lantern in her hand.
1833 T. Hook Parson's Daughter I. ii. 30 He could take his hat and go.
b. with the instrumentality not expressed or considered.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 1338 Þe preost‥toc. & snaþ þatt oþerr bucc Drihhtin þær wiþþ to lakenn.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 5646 Þar-for was moyses his nam, For he was o þe water tan.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur xxi. v. 849 Syr Bedwere toke the kyng vpon his backe and so wente wyth hym to that water syde.
1584 R. Scot Discouerie Witchcraft xii. xviii. 273 Take a cup of cold water, and let fall thereinto three drops of the same bloud.
1611 Bible (A.V.) Gen. ii. 22 The rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made hee a woman.
1685 R. Boyle Ess. Effects of Motion Postscr. 155 Take‥of the Arsenical Loadstone well pulverised two ounces.
a1756 E. Haywood New Present (1771) 77 Take a quart of shrimps.
1882 J. Southward Pract. Printing xi. 444 While the roller [= pressman's assistant] is taking ink, the pressman should employ the time in looking over the heap.
†c. To take and put (a garment) on one, wrap about one. Obs.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 10419 Sco tok on hir cleþing o care.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 9746 Fader, i sal on me for-þi, O thral tak clething sothfastli.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 746/2 Take this mantell aboute you, affullez ce manteau.
a1616 Shakespeare Othello (1622) ii. iii. 89 Take thine owd cloke about thee.
a. To receive into one's body by one's own act; to eat or drink, to swallow (food, drink, medicine, opium, etc.); to inhale (snuff, tobacco-smoke, etc.).(For tobacco, the ordinary expression is now to smoke.)
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 7545 Þatt tokenn aȝȝ wiþþ mikell maeþ & aȝȝ unnorne fode.
a1400 Cursor M. 16762 + 16 He tast it with tonge, Bot þer-of toke he noght.
c1475 (1400) Apol. Lollard Doctr. (1842) 103 Þe meyt comendiþ vs not to God,‥but frely it may be tan, & frely left.
1509 A. Barclay tr. S. Brant Shyp of Folys (Pynson) f. xlviv, Wyne ne ale hurteth no maner creature But sharpeth the wyt if it be take in kynde.
1601 P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World II. xx. iv, The best way to take it [the juice of the radish], is at the end of a meale with the last meat.
1617 F. Moryson Itinerary ii. 46 He tooke Tobacco abundantly,‥which I thinke preserved him from sicknes.
1656 Ld. Orrery Parthenissa V. iii. iv. 221 My Souldiers having‥taken a little refreshment.
1675 R. Baxter Catholick Theol. ii. i. 298 It was then a crime with them to take Tobacco, and now it is none: thus custome changes the matter.
1732 G. Berkeley Alciphron I. v. vii. 278 Those‥who take his Physic.
c1771 S. Foote Maid of Bath i. 15 Master Flint and I, most evenings take a wiff at the Chequer.
1784 Unfortunate Sensibility II. 70 To take a good drink of raw brandy.
1807 R. Southey Lett. from Eng. II. 219 We took an early breakfast.
1851 E. Fitzgerald Euphranor 67 No doubt he took his glass with the rest.
1875 B. Jowett tr. Plato Dialogues (ed. 2) I. 429 He died by taking poison.
1879 J. Morley Milton 108 He died at Spa, where he was taking the waters, in September 1653.
1891 Murray's Mag. Apr. 532 Inordinately given to taking snuff.
1893 Times 22 Apr. 7/5 The Queen‥took tea at the Cabanon on the sea shore.
b. To expose oneself to (air) so as to inhale it or get the physical benefit of it; chiefly in phr. to take the air , to walk out in the open air (now rare or arch.): see air n.1 5a. So to take a bath , to bathe, esp. in a place or vessel prepared for the purpose; but the phrase is also used in sense 52 (cf. bath n.1 6, 1).
?c1450 Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 1078 His seruands‥Bare him with oute to take þe ayre.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur vii. xvii. 239 Eyther of hem vnlaced his helme, and toke the cold wynde.
1487 (1380) J. Barbour Bruce (St. John's Cambr.) vi. 304 The kyng‥of his basnet than had tane, To tak the air, for he wes hate.
1594 R. Barnfield Affectionate Shepheard i. xx. sig. Biv, Abroad into the fields to take fresh ayre.
1711 J. Addison Spectator No. 123. ¶1 As I was Yesterday taking the Air with my Friend Sir Roger.
1780 R. B. Sheridan School for Scandal ii. ii. 17 Lady Bab Curricle‥was taking the dust in Hyde Park.
1837 Dickens Pickwick Papers xxxv. 385 He had imprudently taken a bath at too high a temperature.
1866 W. D. Howells Venetian Life 295 When the faire Venetians go out in their gondolas to ‘take the air’.
1879 ‘E. Lyall’ Won by Waiting xxxi, Her father‥was to take a course of baths [in Germany].
1890 Cornhill Mag. July 7 The English people hurry forth to take the morning air.
c. Phr. not to be taking any‥: not to be in the mood for; to be disinclined for. slang.
1900 Daily News 10 Mar. 2/1 In the language of the hour, ‘nobody was taking any.’
1905 Daily Chron. 20 Dec. 3/4 As one of her fellow countrywomen might have said, Frances was not ‘taking any’ pessimism just then.
** with physical action subordinated to the relation produced.
a. To bring, receive, or adopt (a person) into some relation to oneself (e.g. into one's service, protection, tuition, care, companionship, favour). to take to (into) mercy : see mercy n. 4.
c1175 Lamb. Hom. 27 Þesne mon ic habbe itaken to mine aȝene bihofþe.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 2792, ‘I haue’, [loth] said, ‘doghtres tua, Tas and dos your will wit þaa.’
a1400 Cursor M. (Gött.) 20106 Þan tok [Cott. name] þe apostel sone on-ane In-tille his keping, þat maidane.
1388 Wyclif Psalms xxvi. 10 For my fadir and my modir han forsake me; but the Lord hath take me.
1428 in Surtees Misc. (1888) 5 Þat tha tuke hym to þair grace.
1477 Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Hist. Jason (1913) 22 The fair Myrro‥toke Iason so in her good grace that vnto the deth she louyd him.
1531 in Sel. Cas. Crt. Requests (1898) 34 The said abbott‥was greaitly laborid to taike to service the said Roger.
1643 J. Burroughes Expos. Hosea (1652) 147 If God takes them to mercy we must be ready willingly to take them into brotherly society.
1654 Earl of Monmouth tr. G. Bentivoglio Compl. Hist. Warrs Flanders 54 Being then tane into pay by the Princes.
1794 in J. O. Payne Old Eng. Cath. Missions (1889) 14 Took into the Church William Fawcett Grange.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 16 135/1 He would freely take them into his confidence.
1885 Law Times 80 6/2 None were allowed to let their rooms or take lodgers.
1891 E. Peacock Narcissa Brendon I. 120 He took pupils to increase his income.
b. spec. in reference to marriage or cohabitation; often in phr. to take to wife , to take in marriage .
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 19593 Þatt tiss herode king‥haffde takenn all wiþþ woh. Filippess wif hiss broþerr.
c1386 Chaucer Melibeus (Harl.) ⁋590 If a neet-hurdes douȝter‥be riche, sche may cheese of a þousand men which she wol take to hir housbonde.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 12667 A man in mariage hir tok, Hight alpheus.
?a1400 Punishm. Adultery 63 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1881) 369 He rouȝt not what woman he toke.
1477 Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Hist. Jason (1913) 131 That they sholde take eche other by mariage.
1560 J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. xxxvv, They bidde him take a Leman, lest he attempt to defyle honest women.
1687 G. Burnet Contin. Refl. Mr. Varillas's Hist. Heresies 77 He professed himself a Lutheran, and took a Wife.
1771 T. Smollett Humphry Clinker II. 208 A young lady‥who agreed to take me for better nor worse.
1891 Cornhill Mag. Dec. 664 He took unto himself a village maid, and settled in Lyndhurst.
c. To possess sexually.
1915 D. H. Lawrence Rainbow i. 14 Whether he were going to take her out of inflamed necessity.
1915 D. H. Lawrence Rainbow viii. 216 Even if he did not take her, he would make her relax, he would fuse away her resistance.
1930 A. Huxley Brief Candles 280 She kissed him again. ‘Take me.’
1948 G. Vidal City & Pillar i. vi. 133 He wanted to throw her on a bed and take her against her will, violently.
1962 I. Murdoch Unofficial Rose xiii. 122 ‘Well, it's up to you too, my queen,’ said Randall. ‘You want to be—taken, don't you?’
1978 T. Allbeury Lantern Network viii. 110 She lay with her eyes open as he took her.
a. To transfer by one's own direct act (a thing) into one's possession or keeping; to appropriate; to enter into possession or use of. See also to take in possession at possession n. 1a; take possession vb. at sense 71.
c1200 Trin. Coll. Hom. 167 Þe deuel‥þan toc his [Job's] oȝen lichame and þer one brohte swo michel sicnesse.
c1300 Harrow. Hell 103 Heouene ant erþe tac to þe, Soules in helle lef þou me.
c1450 Godstow Reg. 416 To entre the forsaid tenement and to take and hold all maner of goodes and catallis I-founde in the same.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Josh. xix. D, And the children of Dan‥toke it in possession, & dwelt therin [Dā (Dan) in text].
1611 Bible (A.V.) John x. 17, I lay downe my life that I might take it againe.
1683 Pennsylvania Arch. I. 55, I desire thee take the towne of Salem into thy lott.
1795 Fate of Sedley I. 189, If he dare to take a bone which they had given to their dogs.
1818 W. Cruise Digest Laws Eng. Real Prop. (ed. 2) IV. 378 The question was, whether the heirs of S. Morris took any estate under this appointment.
1883 Law Times Rep. 49 155/1 The undertakers‥had power to take lands compulsorily.
b. absol. To take possession; spec. in Law, to enter into actual possession.
c1407 Lydgate Reson & Sens. 6486 The hunger‥gredy, and in-saturable Of wommen for to Acroche and take.
1642 tr. J. Perkins Profitable Bk. (new ed.) i. §52. 24 There is one named in the Lease who may take immediately.
1707 E. Ward Wooden World Dissected (1708) 33 But if he gives, he takes too sometimes.
1803 Wordsworth Rob Roy's Grave 39 The good old rule‥the simple plan, That they should take, who have the power, And they should keep who can.
1806 W. Cruise Digest Laws Eng. Real Property VI. 280 The testator's intention to have been, that, upon the death of Francis without issue, the eldest son should take.
1894 Daily News 29 June 5/2 The will of December, 1888, they find, was duly executed.‥ The Royal Academy therefore take.
c. To secure beforehand by payment or contract; e.g. to take a house , etc., to engage (a house or other place) for the purpose of occupying it.
1604 E. Grimeston tr. J. de Acosta Nat. & Morall Hist. Indies iv. vi. 223 Many Spaniardes‥came thither to take mines.
1670 Lady M. Bertie in 12th Rep. Royal Comm. Hist. MSS (1890) App. v. 22 My brother Norreys tooke a box and carryed my Lady Rochester and his mistresse and all us to.
1693 Humours & Conversat. Town 8, I have within these few days taken a Lodging.
1743 J. Bulkeley & J. Cummins Voy. to South-seas 196 To take a House in the Country at our own Expence.
1803 Pic Nic No. 11. 3 She has now taken a thirty years lease of a house.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair xli. 369 Colonel Crawley and his wife took a couple of places in the same old Highflyer coach.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Dec. 719/1 When he took his farm, it was well cultivated.
d. To get or procure regularly by payment (something offered to the public, as a periodical, a commodity). See also to take in at Phrasal verbs 1.
1593 Acct.-bk. W. Wray in Antiquary (1896) 32 119 May the 28 we begun to take milke of Ann Smith for a halfe penneworth of the day.
1798 J. Woodforde Diary 6 Jan. (1931) V. 92 Crouse's Norwich Paper which we used to take, did not arrive.
1808 E. Sleath Bristol Heiress III. 40 A morning paper, which Lady Harcourt constantly took.
1852 A. De Morgan Let. 8 Nov. in R. P. Graves Life Sir W. R. Hamilton (1889) III. 426 You take the Philosophical Magazine, I think.
1897 N. & Q. 8th Ser. 12 354/1 In my boyhood I ‘took’ the Penny Magazine.
*** With a non-material object: to take to oneself, assume, an attribute, quality, character.
a. To assume (a form, nature, character, name, or other attribute); sometimes, to assume the part or character of. to take on oneself , to put on.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 85 He sennde uss‥Hiss sune‥To takenn ure mennisscleȝȝc.
c1385 Chaucer Legend Good Women Dido. 1142 That Cupido‥Hadde the liknesse of the child I-take.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 14464 Þai said þat crist suld ta manhede Of a maiden and of þair sede.
c1440 Alphabet of Tales 57 At þe laste he tuke his spiritt vnto hym.
1546 T. Langley tr. P. Vergil Abridgem. Notable Worke ii. xv. 61 God‥toke on him the shape of Man as Abraham sawe him.
1548–9 Bk. Common Prayer Collect Christmas Day, Almyghtye God, whiche haste geuen us thy onlye begotten sonne to take our nature upon hym.
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) iii. iv. 101 Take any shape but that, and my firme Nerues Shall neuer tremble.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics iv, in tr. Virgil Wks. 132 [They] take the Forms his Prescience did ordain.
1711 J. Addison Spectator No. 35. ¶4 Several Imposters‥who take upon them the Name of this young Gentleman.
1810 Scott Lady of Lake iii. 105 The mountain mist took form and limb.
1844 Fraser's Mag. 30 532/2 Liddy was really taking the woman upon her in earnest, since she had attained the matronly age of seventeen.
1887 Times (Weekly ed.) 9 Dec. 16/2 France cannot take the offensive, but she can paralyse Germany and Italy.
†b. To adopt (a law or custom); to undertake or begin to follow or observe. Obs.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) Ded. l. 7 Broþerr min‥Þurrh þatt witt hafenn takenn ba. An reȝhell boc to follȝhenn.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 19540 Quen þe apostels þan hard sai Samaritans had tan þair wai [other MSS. lay].
c1375 Cursor M. (Fairf.) 2700 Abraham‥was .v. skore bot ane þat day quen þai toke [Cott. vnder-fang] þe new lay.
1474 Caxton tr. Game & Playe of Chesse (1883) ii. i. 21 The peple of tarante toke for a custome that the dronken men shold be puuysshyd.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xlv. 151 He thretenethe to slee me by cause I wyll not take on me his law.
c. To assume, adopt (a symbol or badge, or something connected with and denoting a function): in phrases having specific meanings, as: to take the crown , to take the throne , to assume sovereignty; to take the habit , to become a monk; to take the gown , to become a clergyman; to take the ball (at cricket), to assume the position of bowler; to take an oar , to begin to row. See also cross n. 4c, silk n. and adj., veil n.1 1.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. (1810) 226 Sir Edward toke the croice, for his fader to go.
a1380 St. Bernard 287 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1878) 46 Whon Bernard hed taken his abyt.
?c1450 Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 6620 Þe abyte he toke, as bede of him wryte.
1569 R. Grafton Chron. II. 112 He had taken on him a little before, the lyuery of the crosse.
1605 W. Camden Remaines i. 161 Iohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster‥took a red Rose to his devise.
1784 J. Potter Virtuous Villagers II. 135, I have now taken the gown.
1855 R. Browning Protus 39 John the Pannonian‥Came, had a mind to take the crown.
1860 All Year Round 28 July 384 ‘Take an oar, sir’, said Philip.
1883 Daily Tel. 15 May 2/7 The champion took the ball, vice Penn.
**** To charge oneself with, undertake, discharge.
a. To assume, charge oneself with, undertake (a function, responsibility, etc.). See also take charge vb. at sense 66 ( 66 below), take in charge (charge n.1 13b), take in or on hand (hand n.1 44); also 18a, 18b.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 10896 Sannt iohan‥toc þatt wikenn þohh. Þa siþþenn whanne he wisste [etc.].
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 12390 Trein beddes was he wont to make, And þar-for his seruis to take.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) l. 4795 Lo I am al redy boun Oure aller nedes to take in place.
a1500 (1450) Merlin (1899) i. 3 This feende that toke this enterprise ne taried not.
1647 Bp. J. Taylor Θεολογία Ἐκλεκτική 193 That every man must take his adventure.
1847 F. Marryat Children of New Forest II. iv. 79, I think‥I would take it [sc. the post] on trial.
1863 A. W. Kinglake Invasion of Crimea I. vi. 88 The plan of taking engagements upon possible eventualities.
1890 T. F. Tout Hist. Eng. from 1689 133 Grenville refused to take office without Fox.
1890 S. Lane-Poole Barbary Corsairs i. xii. 124 He took service as a boy in the Turkish fleet.
1892 Speaker 3 Sept. 279/1 Captain Mayer‥was compelled by circumstances to take the responsibility.
(a) To subject oneself to (an oath, vow, pledge, or the like): see also oath n. 1, dick n.5
1511 in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. Oxf. (1880) 3 John Husscher wyll take a othe a pon a boke.
1600 Shakespeare Much Ado about Nothing ii. iii. 24 Ile take my oath on it.
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 435 A bill‥requiring all members of either House‥to take a test against Popery.
1803 Pic Nic No. 4. 5 She has taken the monastic vow.
1897 ‘S. Grand’ Beth Bk. xlvi. 476 I'll take my dick he'll not trouble us with a bill for the next six months.
(b) Phr. to take the Fifth Amendment (U.S.): to appeal to Article V of the ten original amendments (1791) to the Constitution of the United States, which states that ‘no person‥shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself’; hence, to decline to incriminate oneself. Usu. ellipt., to take the Fifth .
1955 U.S. News & World Rep. 22 July 36/2 In the armed services, let a man take the Fifth Amendment and his military career is virtually doomed.
1967 N.Y. Times 22 Jan. iv. 10/1 (heading) Law: taking the Fifth and making a living.
1972 J. G. Vermandel Last seen in Samarra xx. 133 ‘You can hardly have in mind to cast me as a villain because of that.’‥ Alex nodded. ‘Right.‥ If you want to take the Fifth, maybe Derek will settle it for us?’
1976 Times Lit. Suppl. 12 Nov. 1413/2 To do what I did not want to do: take the Fifth Amendment.
1978 S. Brill Teamsters Pl. 4 (caption) The former gym teacher took the Fifth Amendment when asked about the millions of dollars in insurance he had sold to the Teamsters health and welfare funds.
†c. to take it : to make oneself responsible for a statement; to affirm, asseverate. Const. on (one's death, honour: see on prep. 16). Obs.
1602 Shakespeare Merry Wives of Windsor ii. ii. 13, I tooked [1623 took't] on my ho[nour] thou hadst it not.
a1616 Shakespeare King John (1623) i. i. 110 Vpon his death-bed he‥tooke it on his death That this my mothers sonne was none of his.
1631 J. Weever Anc. Funerall Monuments 379 Guiltlesse of any offence‥as he tooke it vpon his death.
18. to take on or upon oneself .
a. To charge oneself with, undertake (an office, duty, or responsibility); to make oneself responsible for. In quot. 1488 absol.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 20790 He wil noght tak þe cark [MS. F. charge] on him, Quar [F. queþer] þat it be sua soght or nai.
1432 Paston Lett. I. 34 The said Erle hath take upon him the governance of the Kinges persone.
1488 (1478) Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) vi. l. 355 Be-caus we wait he is a gentill man, Cum in my grace and I sall saiff him than. As for his lyff I will apon me tak.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xliii. 143 He wyll take on hym this bateyll ayenst the gyant.
1611 Bible (A.V.) Num. xvi. 7 Yee take too much vpon you [Cov. make to moch a doo], ye sonnes of Leui.
a1648 Ld. Herbert Life Henry VIII (1649) 225 He should perswade her to enter a Monastery, and take on her a Religious life.
1728 in J. A. Picton City of Liverpool: Select. Munic. Rec. (1886) II. 86 Occasioned by‥Mr. Hughes's taking upon him the office of Mayor.
1883 Cent. Mag. 26 608/1 Helen took the blame upon herself.
b. With inf. To undertake; to assume the right, presume, make bold (to do something).
c1275 Passion of our Lord 619 in Old Eng. Misc. 54 Vre louerd him tok on To schewen his apostles þet he wes god and mon.
1449 Rolls of Parl. V. 151/2 Daren not take uppon hem to labour ayenst suche Felons.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xxii. 481, I shall take vpon me to make amendes for hym.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. cclxxv. 411 To desyre him to take on him to be the Constable of France.
1649 F. Thorpe Charge York Assizes (1649) 26 If any Person take upon him to be a Badger of Corn.
1720 D. Defoe Mem. Cavalier 248, I took upon me‥to go to Leeds.
1837 H. Hallam Introd. Lit. Europe I. i. 106 Some took on them to imitate what they read.
1885 Law Rep.: Queen's Bench Div. 14 825 The judgment, which the plaintiff has taken upon himself to sue out and to enter, is wrong.
†c. To profess, claim to do something; to assume, presume that‥(with implication that the claim or assumption is unwarranted). Obs.
1546 Wyclif's Wycket (1828) p. viii, Hypocrites that take on them to make oure Lordes bodye.
1560 J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. xxixv, As thoughe I toke vpon me, that I could not erre.
1653 T. Gataker Vindic. Annot. Jer. 10.2 31 The time whereof both of them, contrary to our Saviors avouchment take upon them to determine.
†d. To affect, feign, pretend, make believe, to do something. Obs.
?1571 tr. G. Buchanan Detectioun Marie Quene of Scottes sig. Ejv, Though thay tuke upon tham as if thay regardit nat these thynges, yet sometyme the rumors‥nerely prickit them to the quick.
1600 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 2 ii. ii. 106 How comes that (saies he) that takes vppon him not to conceiue.
1609 Shakespeare Troilus & Cressida i. ii. 135 Shee takes vpon her to spie a white heare on his chinne.
†e. absol. or intr. To assume authority or importance; sometimes in good sense, to behave bravely or valiantly (quot. 1488), to put oneself forward, assert oneself (quot. 1720); usually in bad sense, = to take too much upon one, to behave presumptuously or haughtily, assume airs. Obs.
1488 (1478) Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) v. l. 43 Wallace so weill apon him tuk that tide Throw the gret preys he maid a way full wide.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 747/1, I take apon me, lyke a lord or mayster, je fais du grant.
1581 G. Pettie tr. S. Guazzo Ciuile Conuersat. (1586) ii. 109 b, It shalbe the part of a straunger, being in another mans house, not to take vpon him presumptuously.
1637 T. Morton New Eng. Canaan iii. xxi. 158 This man‥tooke upon him infinitely: and made warrants in his owne name.
1667 S. Pepys Diary 3 June (1974) VIII. 249 But Lord, to see how Duncomb doth take upon him is an eysore.
1720 D. Defoe Capt. Singleton 229, I found it was time to take upon me a little.
f. trans. See 16.
(a) To undertake and perform, conduct, or discharge (a part, function, duty, service, or the like). See also to take part at part n.1 Phrases 2a.
1411 Rolls of Parl. III. 650/1 A Loveday taken bytwen the same parties by William Gascoigne Chief Justice of the forsaid Benche.
1596 Spenser Faerie Queene: 2nd Pt. iv. ix. 24 Each one taking part in others aide.
1874 J. T. Micklethwaite Mod. Parish Churches 60 Each priest‥may take those parts of the service designed to him from time to time.
1885 M. Linskill Lost Son iv. 58 Will you favour us by taking the tenor?
1889 Cornhill Mag. Dec. 623 The female parts in plays being taken by boys and men.
1890 Pictorial World 15 May 616/1 She would take the grammar class at ten and the arithmetic class at eleven.
a1910 Mod., The assistant master who takes duty also takes preparation. The canon who was taking residence that day.
(b) spec., to answer (a telephone call).
1970 P. Moyes Who saw her Die? iii. 37 The shrilling of the telephone provided a welcome release.‥ Dolly said, ‘I'll take it.’
1976 G. Sims End of Web i. 13 ‘Sorry, I'll have to take it. Might be a friend I was trying to contact this morning.’‥ He picked up the phone.
1979 C. MacLeod Luck runs Out iv. 37 The telephone rang. ‘I'll take it,’ said Shandy.
b. Phr. to take pains or trouble (also formerly take labour , take toil, etc.): to take upon oneself and exercise these activities and qualities; to exercise care and diligence: see also pain n.1 5a, trouble n.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 4789 Loke quilk of ȝu sal take on hand, For vs all take þis trauaile.
1528 Impeachm. Wolsey in F. J. Furnivall Ballads from MSS (1868) I. 360 Whoo hathe þis matyr so playnly declaryd, or hathe the labowur Take.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lxxxiii. 262 Ye shall not nede to take the laboure.
1600 C. Tourneur Transformed Metamorph. sig. C6v, But (knight) beleeue me, I haue t'ane much toile.
1794 Marquis of Buckingham in 14th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 489, I am sure you have taken every pains to do whatever you imagined might best forward my wishes.
1893 H. P. Liddon et al. Life Pusey I. xviii. 420 His unlimited capacity for taking trouble.
***** To adopt or assume as one's own.
a. To adopt as one's own (a part or side in a contest, controversy, etc.), to range oneself on, ally oneself with (a side or party); see to take the part of at part n.1 Phrases 2c(b), party n. 3, side n.1 IV.
c1420 Lydgate Assembly of Gods 1058 Vertu was full heuy, when he sy Frewyll Take part with Vyce.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 750/1, I take ones parte, I holde with hym in a mater, je prens partye.
1606 G. W. tr. Justinus Hist. xxxvi. 114 Shewed in derision to the people that had tooke part with him.
1751 E. Haywood Hist. Betsy Thoughtless II. xvii. 199 To take the party, which would best become his honour and reputation.
1820 L. Hunt Indicator No. 15 (1822) I. 118 No wonder that the Queen of France took part with the rebels against‥her husband.
b. absol. or intr. in same sense: to take against , to oppose; to take for , to support, back up, side with. rare. (See also to take with —— 4 at Phrasal verbs 2.)
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. Wace (Rolls) 15312 And for Englische mennes sake, Ageyn þe oughte we to take.
1770 S. Foote Lame Lover ii. 31 A wise man should well weigh which party to take for.
1892 Longman's Mag. Mar. 558 ‘You are not taking against me?’ he exclaimed suspiciously.
21. To assume as if one's own, to appropriate or arrogate to oneself (credit, etc.); to assume as if granted, e.g. to take leave , to take liberty , etc.: see also liberty n.1 Phrases 3a to take for granted : see 48.
1525 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Chron. II. xxi. 46 Wherfore this Kyng Iohan toke tytell to make warr.
1620 F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher Phylaster i. 4 Kissing your white hand Mistresse I take leaue, to thanke your royall Father.
1625 Bacon Ess. (new ed.) 153 Mæcenas took the Liberty to tell him that [etc.].
1628 O. Felltham Resolves: 2nd Cent. xxxi. 98 Hamans thirst was Honour: Achitophel tooke the glory of his Counsell.
1820 Examiner No. 612. 7/1 We would take leave to recommend‥an alteration.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Sept. 564/1 Voltaire took all sorts of liberties with his mother tongue.
1870 J. E. T. Rogers Hist. Gleanings 2nd Ser. 93 He took credit to himself that‥her son remained stanch.
22. Grammar. Of a word, clause, or sentence: To have by right or usage, either as part of itself or with it in construction (a particular inflexion, accent, case, mood, etc.) as the proper one.
1818 E. V. Blomfield tr. A. H. Matthiæ Greek Gram. I. 208 Verbs‥which are derived from compound adjectives, take the augment at the beginning.
1818 E. V. Blomfield tr. A. H. Matthiæ Greek Gram. I. 472 The following verbs‥take the genitive of the thing.
1860 W. W. Goodwin Greek Moods & Tenses 220 Causal sentences regularly take the Indicative.
1876 B. H. Kennedy Public School Lat. Gram. §20 All Declensions take the Ending m for Masc. and Fem. Nouns.
1881 H. W. Chandler Greek Accent. §767 The following take the accent on the penultimate.
IV. Pregnant senses related to III.; usually including a notion of choice, purpose, use, employment, treatment, or occupation.
* Connoting choice.
23. To pick out from a number: either by chance, at random; or with intention, to select, choose.
c1300 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Otho) (1963) l. 6076 Ten þusend cnihtes tock Gracien forþrihtes [c1275 Calig. he chæs‥ten þusend cnihten].
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) 1 Sam. xiv. 42 Saul seith, Leyeth lot betwix me and Jonathan my sone. And Jonathas is taken.
1535 Coverdale 1 Sam. xiv. 42 Saul sayde: Cast the lot ouer me and my sonne Ionathas. So Ionathas was taken.
a1625 Shakespeare & J. Fletcher Two Noble Kinsmen (1634) ii. iii. 75 [Peasant] Thou wilt not goe along. Arc. Not yet Sir. [P.] Well Sir Take your owne time.
1625 Bacon Ess. (new ed.) 219 Good Commanders in the Warres, must be taken, be they neuer so Ambitious.
1742 P. Francis tr. Horace Satires i. iv. 31 Take me a man, at venture, from the crowd.
1791 J. Boswell Life Johnson anno 1769 I. 325 Johnson: I'll take you five children from London, who shall cuff five Highland children.
** Connoting purpose, use, employment.
a. To adopt or choose in order to use in some way; to adopt in some capacity (const. as, for); hence, to employ for a purpose, to have recourse to, avail oneself of, proceed to use (a means or method); to seize (an opportunity, etc.). See also take day vb. at sense 67, advantage n. Phrases 2a, measure n. 19, occasion n.1 1.
a1400 Cursor M. 29177 For a reule þis sal þou take.
1471 J. Paston in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) I. 441 Thys next terme I hope to take on [= one] weye wyth hyre ore othere.
1483–4 Act 1 Rich. III c. 2 §1 That suche exaccions‥afore this tyme takyn be take for no example to make suche or any lyke charge‥hereafter.
1561 T. Norton tr. J. Calvin Inst. Christian Relig. ii. 143 Of which wordes the Apostle toke occasion to make this comparison.
1579 W. Fulke Heskins Parl. Repealed in D. Heskins Ouerthrowne 316 He taketh times and occasions at his pleasure.
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) iii. i. 23 We should haue else desir'd your good aduice‥In this dayes Councell: but wee'le take to morrow.
1668 Dryden Sr Martin Mar-all iii. 27 If thou wilt have a foolish word to lard thy lean discourse with, take an English one.
1686 tr. J. Chardin Coronation Solyman 122 in Trav. Persia, He knew‥how to take his Measures to the ruine of his Competitors.
1728 A. Ramsay Bonny Chirsty iv, He wisely this white minute took, And flang his arms about her.
1729 Bp. Waddington in Lardner's Wks. (1838) I. p. lxiii, You have certainly took a very proper and christian way with him.
1758 S. Hayward Seventeen Serm. Introd. 11 What special methods could be taken to stem the tide of immorality?
1789 Triumphs Fortitude I. 101, I shall take the first opportunity of sending the books I promised.
1820 Examiner No. 614. 39/1 That great genius is taken as the standard of perfection.
1867 W. D. Howells Ital. Journeys 118 We raised our sail, and took the gale that blew for Capri.
1890 Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. 148 442/2 Every possible means is now taken to conceal the truth.
b. To take into use, to use, have recourse to (one's hands, a tool, weapon, etc.) for doing something. to take a stick (etc.) to , to use it to beat (a person, etc.). (Sometimes with mixture of sense 12.)
1768 L. Sterne Sentimental Journey II. 25, I took both hands to it.
1888 R. L. Stevenson Black Arrow iv. ii. 208 He had ta'en his belt to me, forsooth!
1889 ‘L. Carroll’ Sylvie & Bruno iv. 53 ‘Take a stick to him!’ shouted the Vice-Warden.
c. esp. To take into use or employment, to have recourse to as a means of progression (a vehicle, ship, horse, one's limbs, etc.); to enter or mount for a journey or voyage. Often without article, as to take boat , to take coach , to take ship , etc.: see also to take to at Phrasal verbs 1 (to take to —— 2 at Phrasal verbs 2), take horse ( 70a); heel n.1 20, leg n. 2b , wing n. (Cf. 25.)
c1450 [see sense 70a].
1517 R. Torkington Diarie (1884) 46 We toke our assys at the Mownte Syon,‥and rode the same nyght to Bethlem.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 751/1, I take shyppe or the see, je monte sur la mer.‥ Where toke they shyppyng, ou est ce quilz monterent sur la mer.
1576 W. Lambard Perambulation Kent (1826) 179 Thomas Becket secretly tooke boate at Rumney.
1654 E. Wolley tr. G. de Scudéry Curia Politiæ 19 If the Duke of Guise‥had speedily taken post, and fled from Blois.
1672 Sir C. Lyttelton in Hatton Corr. (Camden) 86, I am‥just taking coach to give his Rll Highnesse ye paru bien after his late danger.
1723 D. Defoe Hist. Col. Jack (ed. 2) 235, I took the Packet-Boat, and came over to England.
1844 Fraser's Mag. 30 603/1 He takes ship for Ireland.
1885 ‘F. Anstey’ Tinted Venus viii. 95 I've a good mind to take the tram to the Archway.
1892 Monthly Packet Apr. 444 They‥took train to London.
a. To gain the aid or help of (a place) by betaking oneself to it; to gain, reach, repair to, go into, enter (esp. for refuge or safety); to get into or on to: = to take to at Phrasal verbs 1. Often in special phrases: see field n.1, ground n., inn n., land n.1, refuge n., sanctuary n.1, sea n., wall n.1, water n., etc.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 3977 He droh in ane hælue. & toc þan [c1300 Otho tock to] herberwe.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. Wace (Rolls) 5397 Hauene he tok at Porcestre.
c1400 Laud Troy Bk. 10501 Thei token the toun with mychel spede‥To saue her lyues.
1461 H. Windsor in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) II. 251 The Duc of Excestre and th'Erle of Pembrok ar floon and taken the mounteyns.
1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. clxx. 155 They that myght take the bridge escaped.
1485 Caxton tr. Paris & Vienne (1957) 36 [He] took the ryuer wyth hys hors.
1512 Act 4 Hen. VIII c. 2 §2 If any murderer‥hadde taken any Church or Churchyerd or murder.
1565 T. Stapleton tr. Bede Hist. Church Eng. v. xiv. f. 169, Beinge vysited with sycknesse he toke his bedd.
1583 Reg. Privy Council Scotl. III. 600 Constraning him to tak his hous for the saifty of his lif.
1618 S. Rowlands Night-raven (1620) 12 A cruell Beare, which forc'd him take a tree.
1831 Examiner 443/2 Vipers occasionally take the water.
1852 R. F. Burton Falconry in Valley of Indus v. 61 (note) , The first falcon‥caused the quarry to take the air.
1868 A. P. Stanley Hist. Mem. Westm. Abbey v. 364 But the right of asylum rendered the whole precinct a vast ‘cave of Adullam’ for all the distressed and discontented of the metropolis who desired, according to the phrase of the time, to ‘take Westminster’.
1880 T. Stevenson in Encycl. Brit. XI. 455 A harbour which may be easily taken and left in stormy weather.
b. To adopt and enter upon (a road, way, path, course, etc., lit. or fig.); to betake oneself to, begin to go along or by: sometimes with mixture of sense ‘to choose, select’ (23). See also course n. 11b, 22, way n.1
a1300 Cursor Mundi 17643 To ierusalem he tok þe strete.
c1380 Sir Ferumbras (1879) l. 3152 Þus othere toke þat cors an haste.
1489 (1380) J. Barbour Bruce (Adv.) ii. 146 All him alane the way he tais.
1513 G. Douglas tr. Virgil Æneid vi. viii. 1 With all his speid fra thens he tuke the gait.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xxi. 63, I counsell you to take the long way.
1590 Spenser Faerie Queene i. i. sig. A4v, So many pathes,‥That which of them to take, in diuerse doubt they been.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics iii, in tr. Virgil Wks. 110 Pleas'd I am, no beaten Road to take.
1749 H. Fielding Tom Jones III. vii. x. 72 Which Way must we take?
1827 H. Hallam Constit. Hist. Eng. I. iii. 123 Elizabeth had taken her line as to the Court of Rome.
1895 Law Times Rep. 73 22/1 The court‥left the parties to take their own course.
c. to take (a place or person) in (on) one's way , to touch at or visit in one's journey; to include in one's route.
a1622 R. Layne in J. Smith Gen. Hist. Virginia (1624) i. 8, I‥sent Pemissapan word I was going to Croatan, and tooke him in my way.
1676 A. Wood Life & Times (1892) II. 342 Wee went home and took Pershore in the way.
1701 W. Wotton Hist. Rome: Marcus vi. 85 He did not take Rome in his way.
1837 J. G. Lockhart Mem. Life Scott xliv, Scott‥asked me to walk home with him, taking Ballantyne's printing office in our way.
d. intr. to take and = to go and at go v. 32c.dial. and U.S. colloq.
1836 Southern Lit. Messenger ii. 388/2 If you do so I will take and tell father.
1859 T. Hughes Scouring of White Horse vi. 129 This here‥maypowl wur the last in all these parts‥but‥the Uffington chaps cum up, and tuk and carried 'un down ther'.
1876 ‘M. Twain’ Adventures Tom Sawyer i. 23 I'll take and bounce a rock off'n your head.
1901 J. Barlow From Land of Shamrock 17 Her cherished Nellie ‘took and died on her’ of some mysterious malady.
1930 W. Faulkner As I lay Dying 45 ‘She's gone,’ Cash says. ‘She taken and left us,’ pa says.
1977 ‘L. Egan’ Blind Search viii. 133 Poor soul, this awful cancer. She took and died inside of three months.
*** Connoting treatment.
a. trans. To proceed or begin to deal with or treat in some way or do something to; hence, to ‘take in hand’, ‘tackle’, deal with, treat.See also to take at advantage at advantage n. Phrases 3c, take it easy (easy adv. 4), take in turns (turn n.). (In quot. 1671, to settle, adjust, make up: = to take up at Phrasal verbs 1.)
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Chron. I. xviii. 24 They wold haue ben slayn, or taken at auauntage.
1596 J. Harington New Disc. Aiax Prol. sig. B4v, He will take a weake man at the vauntage.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 418 This disease‥if it be taken in any time it is easie to be holpen.
1671 H. M. tr. Erasmus Colloq. 62 They themselves will better take this difference among themselves.
1720 D. Manley Power of Love v. 281 Being taken at such disadvantage, his Valour would have signify'd little.
1734 Pope Ess. Man iv. 217 Men in their loose, unguarded hours they take, Not that themselves are wise, but others weak.
1737 H. Bracken Farriery Improved xx. 288 The Business is to take the Distemper in its first Stage.
1812 T. Jefferson Writings (1830) IV. 176 To fight two enemies at a time, rather than to take them by succession.
1896 Law Times 100 438/2 Admiralty Appeals with Assessors will be taken in Appeal Court I on Wednesday.
1896 Daily News 30 May 8/4, I shall not take physiology next year, but I shall give some teaching on the subject in the way of object lessons in hygiene.
b. To use, deal with, or treat (a name or word) in some way. to take in idle adj. and n., in vain adj. and n.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 4402 Þatt tu ne take nohht wiþþ skarn. Wiþþ hæþinng. ne wiþþ idell. Þe name off ure laferrd crist.
c1315 Shoreham iii. 91 Honury þou schelt enne god‥Take nauȝt hys name in ydelschepe.
c1386 Chaucer Parson's Tale ⁋522 Euery man that taketh goddes name in ydel, or falsly swereth with his mouth.
c. To proceed to deal with mentally; to consider; to reckon. So to take into or under consideration , to proceed to consider (see consideration n. 2c). See also to take together at Phrasal verbs 1.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) 335 & tacc hemm baþe ut off þatt streon.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 325 Tacc nu þiss streon þatt tuss wass sibb. Wiþþ preostess. & wiþþ kingess.
1589 G. Puttenham Arte Eng. Poesie iii. xix. 191 For example ye may take these verses.
1603 Shakespeare Hamlet i. ii. 186 He was a man, take him for all in all, I shall not looke vpon his like againe.
a1635 R. Sibbes Heavenly Conf. (1656) 66 Take a good Christian at the worst, he is better than another at the best.
1747 W. Horsley Fool (1748) II. 319 Take one Man with another now in Prison.
1820 Examiner No. 615. 51/1 If the Chamber were to take the petitions into its consideration.
1836 W. T. Brande Man. Chem. (1841) 138 Let us take a fresh-water lake as an example.
1892 Cassell's Family Mag. Aug. 516/1 This, taken with his secretaryship,‥left him but little leisure.
d. slang. To confront, attack; to overcome, defeat; to kill.
1939 ‘E. Queen’ in Blue Bk. Oct. 17 Seems to me the champ ought to take this boy Koyle.
1956 E. L. Perry in A. Hitchcock Stories for Late at Night (1962) 273 Let's take him.‥ That fat guy looks really loaded.
1963 ‘D. Cory’ Hammerhead xi. 161 There were two men now in the doorway, both with pistols.‥ One of them Fedora might have taken; but not, he reluctantly decided, both.
1965 I. Fleming Man with Golden Gun vii. 97 It had been damned fine shooting.‥ How in hell was Bond going to take him?
1976 Publishers Weekly 1 Mar. 93/3 They broke their tie with the Giants and went on to take the Tigers in seven wild World Series games.
1979 E. Bercovici Wolf Trap 41 The man who tried to take me was Martinez.‥ Next time I am going to kill him.
**** Connoting occupation.
a. To proceed to occupy, enter on the occupation of (a place or position, lit. or fig.). See also chair n.1 9, floor n.1 4, ground n. 11c, place n.1 13b, Phrases 1e, post n.3 2, precedence n. 3, 2a, seat n., stand n.1, etc.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 3977 He droh in ane hælue. & toc þan [c1300 Otho tock to] herberwe.
1390 J. Gower Confessio Amantis III. 293 This yonge Prince, as seith the bok, With hem his herbergage tok.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 11443 Þai toke þair gesting in þe tun.
1430–40 Lydgate tr. Bochas Fall of Princes ix. xxxi. (Bodl. 263) lf. 432/2 The ground Itake of wilful pouerte.
1608 Shakespeare King Lear xiii. 32 Thou robbed man of Iustice take thy place.
1711 J. Addison Spectator No. 165. ¶5 They took Post behind a great Morass.
1753 T. Gray Long Story in Six Poems 21 She curtsies, as she takes her chair.
1807 Salmagundi 24 Feb. 67 The latter has taken his winter quarters‥in the corner room opposite mine.
1883 Fargus Cardinal Sin xii, It was soon her turn to take the stage.
1888 Sc. Leader 27 July 6/7, I took the chair at a meeting to promote the candidature of a Radical as a member for Parliament.
†b. intr. ? ellipt. for to take place, to occur. rare.
c1374 Chaucer Troilus & Criseyde iv. 1534 (1562) And yf so be þat pes her-after take As alday happeþ after anger game.
a. To use, occupy, use up, consume (so much material, space, time, energy, activity, etc.): = to take up 1b at Phrasal verbs 1. Sometimes nearly = ‘need’ or ‘require’. Hence (colloq.) to require (a person or thing of so much capacity or ability) to do something. to take (one's) time : to allow oneself sufficient time (to do something); hence (sarcastically), to be ‘quite long enough’, i.e. too long: to loiter.
a1578 R. Lindsay Hist. & Cron. Scotl. (1899) I. 251 This scheip‥tuik so mekill timber that scho waistit all the wodis in Fyfe.
1600 Shakespeare Midsummer Night's Dream i. i. 83 Take time to pawse.
c1710 C. Fiennes Diary (1888) 239 At ye ffeete of the bed that tooke ye Length of the roome.
1713 G. Berkeley Three Dialogues Hylas & Philonous i. 40, I will take time to solve your Difficulty.
1753 E. Chambers Cycl. Suppl. s.v. Lime, Lime-stone generally takes sixty hours in burning.
1788 W. Cowper Let. 18 Aug. (1982) III. 198, I took my own time to return, and did not reach home till after one.
1796 F. Burney Camilla II. iii. i. 23 Pray take your own time. I am not in any haste.
1858 G. Glenny Gardener's Everyday Bk. 134/1 They take less room on than off.
1873 T. Hardy Pair of Blue Eyes III. i. 21, I don't press you for an answer now, darling.‥ Take your time.
1890 Field 8 Mar. 364/1 Any ignoramus can construct a straight line, but it takes an engineer to make a curve.
1893 Nat. Observer 7 Oct. 541/2 The remainder of the Life will take two more volumes.
1912 W. B. Yeats Land of Heart's Desire (ed. 7) 11 It's precious wine, so take your time about it.
1930 W. Faulkner As I lay Dying 252 ‘Let him take his time,’ I said. ‘He ain't as spry as you, remember.’
1966 A. Higgins Langrishe, go Down iii. 28 Taking her time, Helen cycled slowly by the wall of the Charter School.
1981 ‘E. Ferrars’ Experiment with Death iv. 68 Emma suggested that Sam had probably gone to the lavatory. ‘If so, he's taking his time,’ Roger said.
b. A person is said to take a particular size in gloves, boots, collars, etc., implying that that is the size which fits.
1897 F. Marryat Blood of Vampire ii, [She] informed me the other day that her Mamma took nines in gloves.
c. to have (got) what it takes : to possess the necessary attributes or qualities, esp. those needed for success. colloq. (orig. U.S.).
1929 Amer. Speech 4 357 To avoid using the word money, the well-informed user of slang may use‥the needful, the wherewithal,‥or what it takes.
1933 F. Baldwin Innocent Bystander ix. 186 Angela, who has plenty of what it takes, is the White Hope of the arty crowd which gathers at her penthouse.
1944 M. Laski Love on Supertax iv. 49 Only maturity's got what it takes.
1947 D. M. Davin For Rest of Lives 335 The cheap verses had everything it takes to make a soldier's song.
1956 B. Holiday Lady sings Blues iv. 51 Sometimes I wonder how we survived. But we did. If we didn't have what it took at the beginning, we picked it up along the way.
1972 J. Wambaugh Blue Knight (1973) xiii. 225 He's got everything it takes but guts.
1977 Zigzag Apr. 26/1 They've got the right idea and what it takes.
d. it takes all sorts to make a world: see sort n.2 11d.
e. to take one all one's time: see time n., int., and conj. Phrases 4j.
a. To begin or start afresh after leaving off, or after some one else; to resume; = to take up at Phrasal verbs 1 (Also absol.) to take the word , to begin to speak, esp. after or instead of some one else: see word n.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Chron. I. cccxliii. 219/1 Than the duke of Bretayne toke the wordes, & sayd [etc.].
c1540 Destr. Troy 747 Now turne to our tale, take þere we lefte.
a1547 Earl of Surrey tr. Virgil Æneis iv. 144 Quene Juno then thus tooke her tale againe.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics iv, in tr. Virgil Wks. 128, I must forsake This Task; for others afterwards to take.
1825 Scott Betrothed iii, in Tales Crusaders II. 75 Eveline remained silent. The Abbess took the word.
b. to take it from there : to take over or continue from the point or situation described.
[1948 Radio Times 19 Mar. 5/3 A new weekly comedy series, Take It From Here, will make its appearance‥on Tuesday evening.]
1959 Internat. Celebrity Reg. 430/1 Miss Shearer informed the studio of her find. They took it from there.
1960 P. G. Wodehouse Jeeves in Offing xix. 188 His future hangs on this speech, and we've got it and he hasn't. We take it from there.
1973 Ottawa Jrnl. 14 July 24/3 They interrupt each other and talk until the breath gives out and then another one cuts in and takes it from there.
1975 N. Luard Travelling Horseman vi. 167 I'd tell him what I'd found out and he could take it from there.
V. To obtain from a source, to derive.
a. To get, obtain, or derive by one's own act from some source (something material or non-material); to adopt, copy, ‘borrow’ (also absol., quot. 1493); to take example of, ‘get’ or ‘learn’ from some one (quot. 1544). See also ensample n. 2b, example n. 6c.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 14470, Ȝiff þu bisne takenn willt. Off þise tweȝȝenn breþre.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. Wace (Rolls) 5273 Þre þousand pound ylka ȝer‥Of alle þe lond gedered & tan.
a1400 Cursor M. 17288 + 175 Cott. (insert.) To haf mercy of synful men Ensaumple at him he toke.
c1386 Chaucer Wife of Bath's Prol. 183 Rede it in his Almageste and take it there.
c1460 J. Fortescue Governance of Eng. (1885) x. 131 Þat we now serch how the kyng mey haue such livelod; but ffirst, off what comodites it mey best be take.
1493 Festivall (1515) 145 b, [Luke] loked what Marke and Mathewe had wryten, and so toke at them.
1544 J. Bale Brefe Chron. Syr J. Oldcastell in Harl. Misc. (Malh.) I. 269 Of them [Annas & Caiaphas] onely haue ye taken it to iudge Chrystes members, as ye do.
1606 G. W. tr. Justinus Hist. xxx. 101 Schollers which from him as their tuter had tane theyr practise.
1732 G. Berkeley Alciphron I. iii. ix. 179 The Proportions of the three Grecian Orders were taken from the Humane Body.
1766 O. Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield I. xvii. 179 All the ladies of the Continent would come over to take pattern from ours.
1878 H. H. Gibbs Ombre 8 The Frontispiece‥is taken from Seymour's ‘Compleat Gamester’.
b. spec. To obtain from its natural source (e.g. stone from a quarry), to get; to pluck, gather (plants, a crop). Now rare.
1477 Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Hist. Jason (1913) 164 And thenne she was‥born into alle the Regyons of the world Where she gadred and toke many herbes of dyuerce facions and condicions.
1585 T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie ii. xi. 46 Mines whereof are taken great quantity of stone.
1844 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 5 i. 174 In taking the crop reaping is universal.
a. To derive, ‘draw’ (origin, name, character, or some attribute or quality) from some source. Const. from, in, of.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 16340 Adam‥Off whamm i toc min bodiȝ lich.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 14677 Brutaine hit wes ihaten of Brutten nom taken.
a1400 Cursor M. 20085 He þat toke of hir his fless‥hang a tre þar nailed to.
a1400 Cursor M. 36 Ilk a frouit‥takes fra þe rote his kinde.
1474 Caxton tr. Game & Playe of Chesse (1883) iii. i. 77 We were first formed and toke our begynnyng of the erthe.
?a1475 (1425) tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl.) (1869) II. 255 Men of Assiria toke theire name of Assur, men of Hebrewe of Heber.
1586 W. Webbe Disc. Eng. Poetrie sig. F.ii, Ryme, taken from the Greeke worde Ρυθμος.
1660 tr. H. Bloome Bk. Five Collumnes Archit. A j, The‥Columnes called Dorica, taking beginning of Dorus, Prince of Achaia and Peloponnesus.
1772 W. Jones Ess. i. in Poems (1777) 186 The Turks‥took their numbers, and their taste for poetry from the Persians.
1855 T. B. Macaulay Hist. Eng. IV. 776 No English title had ever before been taken from a place of battle lying within a foreign territory.
†b. To infer, deduce; to obtain as a result.
c1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 343 But hou shulde men take of þis to roune wiþ prestis & þus to be assoiled?
c1400 (1391) Chaucer Treat. Astrolabe (Cambr. Dd.3.53) (1872) ii. §25. 35 Adde thanne thilke declinacion to the altitude of the sonne at noon and tak ther the heuedes of aries & libra & thin Equinoxial.
c1449 R. Pecock Repressor (1860) 54 Of which‥text thei taken that whoeuer is a persoon of saluacioun schal soone vndirstonde the trewe meenyng of Holi Scripture.
32. To get as a result or product by some special process.
a. To get (information, evidence, etc.), or ascertain (a fact), by inquiry, questioning, examination, or the like; also transf., to perform or carry on (an examination or the like) in order to ascertain something (cf. 52).
1460–1 Rolls of Parl.:Henry VI (Electronic ed.) Parl. Oct. 1460 388/1 By Inquisitions tane uppon ychone of the same Wyrtes.
1511–12 Act 3 Hen. VIII c. 21 Preamble, An untrue Inquysicion taken before your Eschetoure in the seid Countie.
1583 T. Stocker tr. Tragicall Hist. Ciuile Warres Lowe Countries i. 68 b, Information which was taken by the Inquisitours here aboutes.
1598 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 1 iv. i. 134 Let vs take a muster speedily.
1600 in Shaks. Cent. Praise (1879) 35 The examination of Sr Gelly merick Knyght taken the xvijth of Februarij, 1600.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics iv, in tr. Virgil Wks. 141 Himself their Herdsman, on the middle Mount, Takes of his muster'd Flocks a just Account.
1705 London Gaz. No. 4139/5, The King‥took a Review of the Forces.
1768 W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. III. iv. 59 A commission of assise, directed to the judges and clerk of assise, to take assises; that is, to take the verdict of a peculiar species of jury called an assise.
1768 W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. III. vii. 101 [The judge] takes information by hearing advocates on both sides, and thereupon forms his interlocutory decree or definitive sentence at his own discretion.
1817 M. Edgeworth Harrington ii. 35 He ran down to the country to take the sense of his constituents.
1863 H. Cox Inst. Eng. Govt. iii. vii. 698 He never disposes of any important preferments without taking the pleasure of the Crown.
1890 Cornhill Mag. Sept. 276 Tests are taken to see if the cable has sustained any damage.
1893 National Observer 7 Oct. 524/1 A Bill on which it dare not take the country's opinion.
b. To get or ascertain by measurement or scientific observation; also transf., to make, perform (a measurement, an observation). See also measure n. 12b.
1432 Lydgate Minor Poems (1934) ii. 639 Euclyde toke mesours be craffte off Gemetrye.
1571 (1505) R. Henryson tr. Æsop Fables (Fox & Wolf) x. v, Bot Astrolab, Quadrant, and Almanak,‥The mouing of the heuin this Tod can tak.
1579 S. Gosson Schoole of Abuse f. 20v, The height of Heauen, is taken by the staffe.
1598 W. Phillip tr. J. H. van Linschoten Disc. Voy. E. & W. Indies i. xciii. 170/1 Taking the hight of the Sunne, we found our selues to be under 37 degrees.
1622 T. Dekker & P. Massinger Virgin Martir iii. sig. G3v, Misery taking the length of my foote, it bootes not me to sue for life.
1663 S. Butler Hudibras i. i. 10 For he by Geometrick scale Could take the size of Pots of Ale.
1697 J. Collier Ess. Moral Subj. (1703) i. 111 The Taylor should take measure of their quality as well as of their limbs.
1847 Tennyson Princess iii. 153 That afternoon the Princess rode to take The dip of certain strata to the North.
1887 Westall Capt. Trafalgar xviii. 236 Isn't it about time for taking the sun?‥it is four days since we knew our position.
1900 E. C. E. Lückes Gen. Nursing (ed. 2) xii. 147 The temperature has to be taken every hour.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. The weather was too cloudy to take any observations.
†c. To measure off (a length or distance). Obs.
1660 tr. I. Barrow Euclide's Elements i. 10 The line AG might be taken with a pair of compasses.
1669 S. Sturmy Mariners Mag. i. ii. 32 Take with your Compasses the Line C.
1831 D. Brewster Treat. Optics iv. 38 From a scale on which hm is 1·500, take in the compasses ‘1’.
a. To obtain in writing, write down, make (notes, a copy, etc.); to write down (spoken words), report in writing (a speech, etc.). Also in phr. to take a letter : to write a letter down in shorthand from another's dictation.
a1616 Shakespeare All's Well that ends Well (1623) iv. iii. 116 His confession is taken, and it shall bee read to his face.
a1616 Shakespeare Two Gentlemen of Verona (1623) ii. vii. 84 Goe with me to my chamber To take a note of what I stand in need of.
1653 H. Cogan tr. F. M. Pinto Voy. & Adventures xv. 48 Taking an inventory of this prize.
1708 in Burton's Diary (1828) III. 93 His Majesty sent for Mr. Rushworth, the Clerk, whom he observed to take his speech in character.
1712 F. T. Shorthand p. vi, 'Tis by Short-Hand that all Speeches, Homilies, Tryals, Sermons, &c. are‥taken.
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 309 He would not let me take a copy of it.
1732 G. Berkeley Alciphron I. iv. i. 207 To stand by,‥and take Notes of all that passeth.
1776 Trial Maha Rajah Nundocomar for Forgery 22/1 The Monshy took the copy by my directions.
1883 M. D. Chalmers Local Govt. iii. 41 Minutes of the meeting must be taken.
1901 S. Paget Mem. Sir J. Paget (ed. 2) iii. 61 He had no clinical clerks, and his cases were not taken.
1943 K. Tennant Ride on Stranger x. 110 He seated himself at his table.‥ ‘Will you take a letter, please?’‥ Her pencil travelled quite speedily after his words.
1961 Times 7 June 2/5 Director of general publishing house‥needs an assistant-cum-secretary. Will be expected to ‘take letters’.
b. To obtain by drawing, delineating, etc.; to make, execute (a figure or picture, now esp. a photograph, film, of some object or event); also transf. to obtain or make a figure or picture of, to portray; now esp. to photograph or film. Occas. intr. Also (colloq.) intr. for pass. (with qualifying adv.) of a person: To be a (good or bad) subject for photographing. Cf. take n.1 9a.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 757 Another picture‥which he tooke by another of these Cats in the possession of the Duke of Saxony.
1664 A. Wood Life & Times (1892) II. 20, I went to the castle [sc. Bampton]‥and took the ruins thereof.
1751 T. Hollis in Lett. Lit. Men (Camden) 379 A Scheme for taking and publishing the Antiquities existing at Athens.
1767 O. Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield (new ed.) I. xvi. 159 A limner, who travelled the country, and took likenesses for fifteen shillings a head.
1789 H. L. Thrale Observ. Journey France I. 150 Her portrait‥will not be found difficult to take.
1859 J. M. Jephson & L. Reeve Narr. Walking Tour Brittany 48 Mr. Taylor took the view three times before he quite satisfied himself as to the quality of the negative.
1889 W. H. Mallock Enchanted Island 230, I took a photograph of their church.
1889 B. Howard Open Door ix. 145 The photographers‥say a woman ‘takes’ better standing.
1899 F. V. Kirby Sport E. Central Afr. xxviii. 310, I wished for my camera, for never was there a better chance of ‘taking’ one of these animals.
a1910 Mod., A snap-shot taken by an amateur.
1917 N.Y. Times 25 Feb. 4/1 Two thousand persons participated in the coronation, which required two full days to ‘take’, despite the fact that it remains on the screen only three minutes.
1929 H. B. Abbott Motion Pict. with Baby Ciné ii. 4 It has already been stated that the motion picture is made, or ‘taken’, in a special camera, and that the medium upon which the picture is made is a celluloid film coated with a sensitive emulsion.
1954 R. H. Cricks tr. N. Bau How to make 8mm. Films 99 (caption) Hold the camera absolutely steady while taking.
1954 R. H. Cricks tr. N. Bau How to make 8mm. Films 100 If you are taking a hand-held shot, hold the camera as steady as possible.
1974 Daily Tel. 2 May 3/4 Using a friend's projector and screen, he ran a short colour film taken at the wedding.
VI. To take something given or offered; to receive, accept, exact, and related senses.
* To receive what is given or bestowed.
a. To receive, get (something given, bestowed, or administered); to have conferred upon one (spec. a sacrament, office, order of merit, degree, etc.); to win, or receive as won (a prize, reward); to gain, acquire (experience, etc.; see also to take success, s.v. success n.). Also absol.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 5378 Forr to takenn hæle att himm Off iwhillc unntrummnesse.
c1375 Cursor M. (Fairf.) 19531 Simon‥toke þe sacrement of hali kirk.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) Matt. vii. 8 Eche that axith, takith.
c1384 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) 1 Cor. xi. 24 For the Lord Ihesu‥took breed‥and brak, and seide, Take ȝe and ete ȝe.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 12755 In water baptist he alle þa, þat come til him baptim to ta.
c1450 tr. De Imitatione iii. lix. 250 It is more blessyd to gyue than take.
?c1450 Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 5412 Þar he toke tonsure brade.
a1500 (1400) Sir Torrent of Portyngale (1887) l. 2168 And ye now will liston a stound How he toke armes of kyng Calomond. [Cf. arm n.2 15]
1617 F. Moryson Itinerary i. 29 In the house where the Doctors, and other Graduates take their degrees.
1689 T. Rymer View Govt. Europe 74 The Nations round about submitted and took Laws from him.
1766 J. Entick Surv. London in New Hist. London IV. 31 The will is to be proved, and administration is to be taken.
1805 Scott Lay of Last Minstrel iv. xxiii. 114 Knighthood he took of Douglas' sword.
1888 Mrs. H. Ward Robert Elsmere I. i. iv. 95, I don't feel as if I should ever take Orders.
b. To receive (something inflicted); to have (something) done to one; to suffer, undergo, submit to.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) Pref. l. 90 Þatt he toc dæþ o rode.
1303 R. Mannyng Handlyng Synne 12626 God graunte vs grace,‥for oure synne swyche penaunce [to] take, Þat we be neuer more a-teynt.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) 26617 O sin þat opin es and kid, Tak open penance and vn-hid.
1485 Caxton tr. Charles the Grete (1881) 220 To the ende that they shold not take deth that day.
1581 B. Rich Farewell Mil. Profession (Shaks. Soc.) 212, I will not see her take a manifest wrong.
1663 S. Butler Hudibras i. ii. 144 He took the blow on side and arm.
1748 G. White Serm. (MS.) , He had much rather take, than do, wrong.
1869 E. A. Freeman Hist. Norman Conquest III. xii. 162 The mere senseless love of giving and taking blows without an object.
1875 C. M. Yonge Cameos cxxiv, in Monthly Packet May 501 He professed himself ready to take his trial.
c. To receive (something said to one); to receive information of, to hear; in imp. often = ‘let me tell you’. Somewhat arch.
1609 T. Heywood Troia Britanica xii. lxiv, After they had tooke and given the Time of Day.
a1616 Shakespeare Taming of Shrew (1623) ii. i. 190 Take this of me, Kate of my consolation,‥My selfe am moou'd to woo thee for my wife.
a1616 Shakespeare King John (1623) i. i. 21 Then take my Kings defiance from my mouth.
1671 Milton Samson Agonistes 1570 Then take the worst in brief, Samson is dead.
1805 Scott Lay of Last Minstrel iv. xxiii. 114 Take our defiance loud and high.
d. take that!: (a) said as an accompaniment to the delivery of a blow; (b) used, with a suggestion of challenge or defiance, to emphasize a foregoing statement.
a1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 16290 Wiþ his hond a buffet he ȝaf ihesus ful sore‥‘take þat to teche þe lore’.
1805 C. Wilmot Let. 7 Dec. in M. Wilmot & C. Wilmot Russ. Jrnls. (1934) ii. 209, I don't pity you in the least. Take that for asking me to write you ‘beautiful Russian storys’.
1846 W. E. Forster in Reid Life I. vi. 186 The fact is, they will soon wear nothing. There; take that!
1932 R. Kipling Limits & Renewals 81 ‘Then take that!’ and he smacked the brute's head.
1942 L. V. Berrey & M. Van den Bark Amer. Thes. Slang §158/8 Take that and see how you like it!
1983 A. Olcott May Day in Magadan xiv. 249 His pride was stung. ‘They want me‥’ he said, with an unthinking ‘take that!’ tilt of his nose.
35. To enter into the enjoyment of (pleasure, recreation, rest, or the like). See also ease n. 2, nap n.2 1b (Cf. 13.)
a1375 William of Palerne (1867) l. 2488 [Þei] hiȝed hem homward fast‥& token redli here rest.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 6317 Þat niht he ȝede and tok his rest.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 749/2, I take my rest.
1549 H. Latimer Serm. Ploughers (1868) 38 In the meane tyme the Prelates take theyr pleasures.
1597 T. Beard Theatre Gods Judgem. ii. xii. 282 Before any other should take tast thereof.
1752 C. Lennox Female Quixote i. i, Sometimes he took the diversion of hunting.
1779 Mirror No. 60, One of the company proposed that they should take a game at cards.
1897 G. Allen Type-writer Girl x. 108 So perforce I took holiday.
** To receive what is due or owing; to exact.
36. To receive or get in payment, as wages, etc., or by way of charge or exaction as a fine, tribute; sometimes with connotation ‘accept’ (cf. 39), or ‘charge, exact, demand’ (cf. 37, 38).
a1300 Cursor Mundi 16485 ‘Tas’, he said, ‘your penis here A felun folk er yee’.
a1400 Cursor M. 28405 Agains will i lent my thing, And quilum tok þar-for okeryng.
1427–8 in H. Littlehales Medieval Rec. London City Church (1905) 68 Also for a carpenter iiij dayes‥takyng vj d & his mete a day.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) ix. 216 Straunge knyghtes that were come vnto hym to take wages.
1578 J. Lyly Euphues f. 53, This olde miser askinge of Aristippus what hee would take to teach and bringe vp hys sonne.
a1677 J. Taylor Contempl. State Man (1684) i. vi. 67 What would he now take for all the Honours of this World.
1708 in J. A. Picton City of Liverpool: Select. Munic. Rec. (1886) II. 83 For takeing greater interest‥than by law is allow'd.
1842 R. Browning Pied Piper ix, A thousand guilders! Come, take fifty!
1896 Act 59 & 60 Vict. c. 59 §2 (b), Provided always‥that no money for admission be taken at the doors.
37. To exact (satisfaction or reparation) for an offence; hence, to execute, inflict (vengeance, revenge; †punishment, †justice). Const. on, †of.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. Wace (Rolls) 202 Whan God took wreche of Kaymes synne.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 6094 O þam mi wengeance sal i take.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 5862 Þat suerd apon hus tak na wrak.
1474 Caxton tr. Game & Playe of Chesse (1883) ii. v. 68, I wold take vengeance and turmente the.
1533 J. Bellenden tr. Livy Hist. Rome (S.T.S.) i. ix. 52 Þat he mycht Iustlie tak punycioun of all þe Albane pepill.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 161 His fellowes take punishment of him, and fall on him biting and rending his skinne.
1633 Bp. J. Hall Plaine Explic. Hard Texts ii. 163 Which God in his mercy, would not take speedy revenge of.
a1774 O. Goldsmith tr. P. Scarron Comic Romance (1775) II. xv. 117 The counsellor‥had need of all his good sense to prevent him from taking immediate justice on a man, who sought to injure him so capitally.
1779 T. Forrest Voy. New Guinea 313 To take satisfaction‥for the death of Fakymolano's brother at Ramis.
†38. To receive, exact, or accept (a promise, engagement, oath, or the like); hence, to administer or witness (an oath). to take an oath of , to take (any one) sworn: see oath n. 1, sworn adj.
c1450 Merlin 140 Whan the two kynges hadde take the oth of these two.
1560 J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. lvv, Then began he to take stipulation of them.
1594 Shakespeare Lucrece Argt. sig. A2v, Shee first taking an oath of them for her reuenge, reuealed the Actor.
a1616 Shakespeare Henry V (1623) v. ii. 366 My Lord of Burgundy wee'le take your Oath‥for suretie of our Leagues.
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 309 He took a solemn engagement of her, that, if scruples should arise in her mind, she would let him know them.
1833 Act 3 & 4 Will. IV c. 74 §82 [He] shall be competent to take the acknowledgment of any married woman wheresoever she may reside.
1873 Act 36 & 37 Vict. c. 66 §84 Commissioners to take oaths and affidavits in the Supreme Court.
*** To accept.
a. To receive (something offered), not to refuse or reject; to receive willingly; to accept. Freq. in phr. take it or leave it and varr., expressing indifference or a refusal to bargain, compromise, etc. Cf. take-it-or-leave-it adj. at take- comb. form .
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 4828 Ȝiff þatt we takenn bliþeliȝ. Att godd all þatt iss sellþe.
c1330 Amis & Amil. 1112 Y schal for the take bataile.
c1400 Prymer (1895) 50 Take oure preier, & late þe merci of þi pitee assoile hem þat ben boundun wiþ þe cheyne of synnes.
a1500 in C. T. Martin Chancery Proc. 15th Cent. in Archaeologia (1904) 59 3 To thentent that she shuld not be taken to bayle, but kept still in prisone.
1534 T. More Treat. Passion in Wks. 1281/1 Such as wil take the benefite.
1576 W. Lambarde Perambulation of Kent sig. 2D3v, I‥doe leaue the Reader to his free choice, to take or leaue the one, or the other.
a1616 Shakespeare Two Gentlemen of Verona (1623) iii. i. 100 Take no repulse, what euer she doth say.
1664 T. Killigrew Thomaso iv. ii, in Comedies & Trag. i. 361 That is the price, and less I know, in curtesie you cannot offer me; take it, or leave it.
1697 in N. & Q. (1908) 10th Ser. IX. 378/2 There was not one of the House of Commons but‥would take a bribe.
1762 J. Wesley Let. 21 May (1931) IV. 182 As to that particular expression, ‘Dying at the feet of mercy’, I have only farther to add, I do not care as it is not a scriptural phrase, whether anyone takes or leaves it.
1809 B. H. Malkin tr. A. R. Le Sage Adventures Gil Blas IV. x. x. 169, I will give forty [pistoles] at a word; take them or leave them!
1836 Dickens Pickwick Papers (1837) ii. 18 Gentleman says he'll not detain you a moment, sir, but he can take no denial.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair xxii. 191 She held out her hand with so frank and winning a grace, that Osborne could not but take it.
1898 W. S. Churchill in R. S. Churchill Winston S. Churchill (1967) I. Compan. ii. 917 The tremendous & unchallenged power of the Trust—enabled it to dictate wages to its workmen & prices to its customers. ‘Take it or leave it’ it said ‘This is a free country.’ Thereat the oil-mechanic had to accept the offered wage or find another trade and the customer to buy the oil at the offered price or wait in the dark.
1904 S. J. Weyman Abbess of Vlaye iii, There's a party ringing at the gate, my lord, and—and won't take no!
1929 D. H. Lawrence in Forum Jan. p. l/3 The hen knows she is unanswerable.‥ There it is, take it or leave it!
1953 A. Upfield Murder must Wait xi. 105, I cock a snook at you.‥ You can take it or leave it.
1961 P. G. Wodehouse Service with Smile x. 171 Her air was that of somebody who, where Ickenhams were concerned, could take them or leave them alone.
1977 P. G. Winslow Witch Hill Murder ii. xv. 206, I didn't want to‥say I'd gotten married and he could take it or leave it, because I was afraid he'd leave it.
b. Of a female animal: To admit (the male). See also take horse vb. at sense 70c. In extended use, of a woman. rare.
1577 [see sense 70c].
1759 R. Brown Compl. Farmer 65 Neither can they suckle their young, till they have taken buck.
1845 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 6 ii. 363, I‥set down‥the Ewes as they take the ram.
1864 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 25 i. 254 The number of hours during which they take the bull varies from 24 to 48.
1932 W. Faulkner Light in August x. 212 There were white women who would take a man with a black skin.
1941 N. Mailer Advts. for Myself (1961) 36 When I take a man, and I may take him for a lot of reasons, in back of it all is the feeling‥that that is something I can do better than any other woman.
c. Of fish (with mixture of sense 2b): To seize (the bait). Also absol.
1863 W. C. Baldwin Afr. Hunting vi. 205 They take admirably, but we have only crooked pins for hooks, and cannot catch many.
1867 F. Francis Bk. Angling v. 136 Sometimes fish rise quickly and take quickly.
1889 N. H. Kennard Landing Prize III. i. 6 Fish always take best after rain.
a. To accept (a wager, or the person who offers to lay the wager). So also in reference to a proposal, etc.: see also to take a person at his (also her) word at word n. and int. Phrases 1b(d).
1602 S. Rowlands Greenes Ghost 49, I take you, sayd one or two, and the wager being layd, awaie they went.
1719 D. Defoe Farther Adventures Robinson Crusoe 292, I was for taking him at that Proposal.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Nov. 678/2 I'll take ten to one on it.
1890 Field 24 May 757/1, 800 to 100 was taken about him.
1890 W. C. Russell Ocean Trag. I. vi. 123 He bet me a sovereign.‥ I took him.
b. to take one's death (upon a thing): to stake one's life upon it.
1533 T. Becon Relikes of Rome (1563) 59 He tooke hys death thereon, that he was neuer giltye.
a1616 Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 2 (1623) ii. iii. 94, I will take my death, I neuer meant him any ill.
a. To accept and act upon (advice, a hint, warning, etc.).
c1300 St. Margarete 136 Þt maide‥seide‥goþ fram me anon; Anoþer consail ich haue itake, ich forsake ȝou echon.
c1540 Destr. Troy 12869 The troiens full tite token his rede.
a1616 Shakespeare Tempest (1623) ii. i. 293 They'l take suggestion, as a Cat laps milke.
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) iv. ii. 69 If you will take a homely mans aduice, Be not found heere.
a1616 Shakespeare Cymbeline (1623) v. vi. 172 Hearing vs praise our Loues of Italy‥This Posthumus‥tooke his hint, And‥he began His Mistris picture.
1718 Lady M. W. Montagu Let. Sept. (1965) I. 440 They‥took the first hint of their dress from a fair sheep newly raddled.
1874 C. M. Yonge Cameos cxix, in Monthly Packet Feb. 112 Would that France had taken to itself the teaching!
1892 Punch 29 Oct. 196/2 [He] begged others to take warning by his fate.
1899 Tit-Bits 28 Oct. 109/2 ‘Come along, dear, take your call’, said he, pulling back the heavy curtains.
b. To accept as true or correct; to believe (something told to one). Freq. in phr. take it from me: believe me, take my word for it, be assured. (Cf. 34c) Also, to accept mistakenly as trustworthy, to be deceived by (quot. 1728): cf. to take in at Phrasal verbs 1.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 2824 Forr þatt tu toc wiþþ trowwþe. Þatt word.
1587 in W. M. Williams Ann. Founders' Co. (1867) 69 He givinge his fayth promyse to Mr. Alderman.‥ Mr. Alderman tooke his worde, and rose, and went his ways.
1608 Shakespeare King Lear iv. v. 137, I would not take this from report.
1622 T. Dekker & P. Massinger Virgin Martir ii. sig. D2, We ha not bene idle, take it vpon my word.
1672 W. Wycherley Love in Wood (Dedication) sig. A2v, Madam, take it from me, no man‥is more dreadful than a Poet.
1728 E. Haywood tr. Mme. de Gomez Belle Assemblée (1732) II. 142 The King seeing that they had took the Feint, said at Night,‥Ghent is invested, and we must go anon to raise the Siege.
1829 G. Griffin Collegians I. v. 101 Who should walk in the doore to him, only his dead wife‥! Take it from me he didn't stay long where he was.
1889 F. C. Philips & Wills Fatal Phryne II. iii. 76 You may take it from me that the pot means what it says.
1902 H. James Wings of Dove i. 20 You may take it from me once for all that I won't hear of any one of whom she won't.
1938 A. Christie Death on Nile ii. xvii. 178, I think you must take it from me, Mr. Pennington, that we have examined all the possibilities very carefully.
1957 D. Robins Noble One xix. 177 You can take it from me that I don't believe a word of it.
a. To accept with the mind or will in some specified way (well, ill, in earnest, etc.). See also to take it on the chin at chin n.1 d, take to heart at heart n. 44, to take (a beating, defeat, etc.) lying down at lie v.1 Phrasal verbs, take in good (etc.) part (in good part at part n.1 Phrases 1g), take in scorn n., take in snuff n.1, to take in his stride at stride n. 3d.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 7390 Biforenn þa þatt takenn all. Onn haeþinng þatt we spellenn.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 16396 Quen [Pilate] sagh þat al his soigne þai tok it al to ill.
c1386 Chaucer Wife of Bath's Tale 342 To hym that taketh it in pacience.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 4619 Nai, sir, tas noght in despite.
?c1450 Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 1049 Þir wordes cuthbert wysely toke.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 747/1, I take a thyng a mysse, je mesprens.
1553 H. Latimer Serm. on Twelfth Day (1635) 293 b, There is a common saying amongst us‥, Every thing is (say they) as it is taken, which indeed is not so: for every thing is as it is, howsoever it be taken.
1577 B. Googe tr. C. Heresbach Foure Bks. Husbandry iv. f. 182v, They take it ill, & presently leaue woorking.
1579 W. Wilkinson Confut. Familye of Loue B ij, Take this brief‥aunswere‥in good part.
1671 Lady M. Bertie in 12th Rep. Royal Comm. Hist. MSS (1890) App. v. 22, I take it very ill that none of my nephews would drawe mee.
1728 J. Morgan Compl. Hist. Algiers I. Pref. p. xxvi, Multitudes of People‥would take it in excessive Dudgeon to be thought unfashionable.
1759 Johnson Let. 1 Mar. (1992) I. 184, I shall take it very kindly, if you‥write to me.
1872 W. Black Strange Adventures Phaeton x. 145 The Lieutenant took the matter very coolly.
1888 L. Spender Kept Secret III. i. 15, I did not mean you to take me in earnest.
b. To accept without objection, opposition, or resentment; to be content with; to put up with, tolerate, ‘stand’. Also to take things as one finds them , also to take (people) as one finds them: to judge people without preconceptions; to accept people as they are, esp. by expecting no special preparations for one's entertainment, etc.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur xx. vi. 805 Ye shalle take the wo with the wele, and take hit in pacyence, and thanke god of hit.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) 2 Kings xiv. 10 Take the prayse, and byde at home.
[1548 Hall's Vnion: Edward IV f. ccxliiv, Myne aduise is, let all men trust them, as thei fynde them.]
1580 A. Munday Zelauto sig. H2v, In the meane whyle, take as you finde.
c1595 T. Maynarde Sir Francis Drake his Voy. (1849) 18 He resolved to departe, and to take the winde as God sent it.
1596 J. Harington New Disc. Aiax Prol. sig. B4v, Wee must nowe take him as we finde him, with all his faults.
1638 W. Chillingworth Relig. Protestants i. v. 241 But reall externall deeds doe take things in grosse as they find them, not separating things which in reality are joyned together.
c1779 R. Cumberland in Lett. Lit. Men (Camden) 410, I take events as they fall without murmur or complaint.
c1807 J. Austen Watsons (1954) 351, I am one of those who always take things as they find them. I hope I can put up with a small apartment for two or three nights.
1809 B. H. Malkin tr. A. R. Le Sage Adventures Gil Blas II. v. i. 299, I had the good sense to take things as I found them.
1825 in H. Wilson Mem. I. 147, I could have been a little romantic about you, it is true; but I always take people as I find them.
1868 Dickens in Our Young Folks May 260 We have but a simple joint‥but if you will take us as you find us it will be so kind!
1886 G. B. Shaw Cashel Byron's Profession xiv. 148 You can either take me as you find me, or let me alone.
1896 Wills in Law Times Rep. 73 689/1 If he does not conform to their law, he must take the consequences.
1903 A. Bennett Leonora ii. 47 She's gotten sausages for you‥though I told her you'd take us as you found us.
1912 A. Lang Shakespeare, Bacon & Great Unknown xii. 247, I am only taking Ben as I find him and as I understand him.
1943 K. Tennant Ride on Stranger vi. 49 All these go by wearing the peevish expression of a housewife who, not having time to make the beds, grumbles: ‘You must take us as you find us.’
1980 T. Barling Goodbye Piccadilly vii. 129 ‘Do we phone ahead in the name of protocol?’ ‘Hell, no. We take them as we find them.’
c. to take a joke : to be able to bear teasing or amusement at one's expense; usu. in negative.
1780 J. Woodforde Diary 28 Mar. (1924) I. 276 Poor Sam cant take a Joke. I forgot what I said to disoblige him.
1838 C. Fox Jrnl. 4 Apr. in Mem. Old Friends (1882) iv. 27 Speaking of Dr. [John] Dalton, he said he could not take a joke at all.
1863 M. B. Chesnut Diary 14 Dec. in C. V. Woodward Mary Chesnut's Civil War (1981) xx. 505 When he saw how angry I was, he said, ‘Can't you take a joke?’
1921 E. O'Neill Diff'rent i. 223 Mrs. Crosby.‥ Shet up your foolin', Jack. Jack.‥ Nobody in this house kin take a joke.
1972 D. Delman Sudden Death (1973) ii. 59 It was a joke. Hell with anybody who can't take a joke.
d. to (be able to) take it : to have the capacity to endure punishment, affliction, etc.
1861 H. Mayhew London Labour (new ed.) III. 387/2 That first flogging made me ripe. I said to myself, ‘I can take it like a bullock.’
1914 O. W. Holmes Let. 24 Sept. in Pollock-Holmes Lett. (1942) I. 222, I value everything that shows the quiet unmelodramatic power to stand and take it in your people.
1941 W. S. Churchill in Unrelenting Struggle (1942) 190 If the storm is to renew itself, London will be ready, London will not flinch, London can take it again.
1952 Chambers's Jrnl. Apr. 196/2 But as soon as I hadn't got Derek—well, I just couldn't take it.
1976 C. Bermant Coming Home i. vi. 87 A slogan, like ‘Britain can take it’.
e. to take things (or it) as they (or it) come(s) : to deal with events as they arise, without anticipating difficulties.
1509 A. Barclay tr. S. Brant Shyp of Folys (Pynson) f. 266, That man folowes hye wysdome Whych takys all thynges lyke as they come.
1611 J. Davies Scourge Folly 170 Take all things as they come, and bee content. So many whores do, and yet pay their Rent.
1863 ‘Ouida’ Held in Bondage I. ix. 203 The true secret is to take things as they come.
1926 E. M. Dell Black Knight i. x, ‘I try to take things as they come.’‥ ‘And when the bottom falls out of everything—what do you do then?’
1979 V. Kelleher Voices from River iii. 34, I was trying not to think.‥ I kept telling myself, take it as it comes.
f. to take on board: see board n. 14e.
43. To face and attempt to get over, through, up, etc. (something that presents itself in one's way), or actually to do so; to clear (an obstacle, as a fence, ditch, wave, space, etc.); to mount (a slope), get round (a corner), clear (the points on a railway line), etc.
1579 L. Tomson tr. J. Calvin Serm. Epist. S. Paule to Timothie & Titus 912/2 To take hedge and ditch, and go on forwards through brambles and briers.
1632 P. Massinger & N. Field Fatall Dowry iv. sig. H2, I looke about, and neigh, take hedge and ditch.
1838 Civil Engineer & Architect's Jrnl. 1 139/2 The tendency to‥friction in passing round curves, and the difficulty of taking the points.
1843 R. J. Graves Syst. Clin. Med. xxxi. 428 He‥is able to run up, taking two of the large stone stair-steps at each spring.
1859 ‘G. Eliot’ Adam Bede I. i. xii. 237 Nothing like ‘taking’ a few bushes and ditches for exorcising a demon.
1864 Good Words 628/1 His pony ‘takes timber’ without asking a question.
1892 Graphic 9 Apr. 467/1 The proper course to steer is for Craven Cottage Point, which can be taken rather closely.
1972 M. Kenyon Shooting of Dan McGrew xxii. 184 He took the corner like a rally driver.
1976 ‘B. Shelby’ Great Pebble Affair 181, I took the lakeshore S curve designed for thirty mph at fifty-five.
**** To admit, absorb, include.
a. To admit, let in; to receive something fitted into it (quot. 1793): = to take in at Phrasal verbs 1.
1674 tr. P. M. de la Martinière New Voy. Northern Countries 27 A small hole in the Keel, which took a little water.
1793 J. Smeaton Narr. Edystone Lighthouse (ed. 2) §244 The cavities cut on the under side‥to take the upper half of each cube.
1890 Temple Bar Mar. 371 The Anonyma‥several times took more water than we liked.
b. To absorb or become impregnated with (something detrimental, as moisture); to be affected injuriously by; to contract (disease, infection, injury, etc.); to fall into (a fit or trance). See also air n.1 8, cold n. 4a, 4b, wind n.1
13.. Cursor M. (Gött.) 23089 Of nakedhede quen i toke [Cott. drogh] harm Ȝe gaf me clething wid to warm.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1865) I. 109 Þat þe water‥takeþ no defoul, but is clene i-now [etc.].
1513 Act 5 Hen. VIII c. 4 §1 (3) If the same Worsted‥taketh any Wet, incontinent it will shew spotty and foul.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 747/2, I take colde, je me morfons.
1547 Reg. Privy Council Scotl. I. 78 Personis that‥takis seikness in our Soverane Ladyis army.
1555 R. Eden tr. Peter Martyr of Angleria Decades of Newe Worlde i. iii. f. 16v, The vytayles‥corrupted by takynge water.
1600 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 2 v. i. 69 As men take diseases one of another.
1639 N. N. tr. J. Du Bosq Compl. Woman ii. 22 That lampe of the Romans, which‥went out as soone as it tooke Aire.
1712 T. Hearne Remarks & Coll. (1889) III. 301 The Book hath taken wet, and the Letters‥are hardly visible.
1864 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 25 ii. 559 Both sheep took the disease.
1885 E. Lynn Linton Autobiogr. Christopher Kirkland III. x. 309 A man who takes all the epidemics afloat.
c. To absorb, contract, become impregnated with (a dye, colour, quality, salt, etc.); to receive, become affected by (an impression, a polish, or the like).
1593 Shakespeare Venus & Adonis sig. Ciiij, His tendrer cheeke, receiues her soft hands print, As apt, as new falne snow takes any dint.
1601 P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World II. xxxv. vi, It will take colour and be marked verie well.
a1642 W. Monson Naval Tracts (1704) ii. 264/1 No Flesh in the Indies will take Salt.
1697 J. Collier Ess. Moral Subj. (1703) ii. 122 To see the cheeks take the dye of the passions thus naturally.
1727 A. Hamilton New Acct. E. Indies I. xxii. 260 The Flesh was not so savoury‥nor would it take Salt kindly.
1865 Reader 1 Apr. 371/2 It takes dyes admirably—much better than cotton.
1877 W. R. Cooper Short Hist. Egypt. Obelisks (1878) i. 3 A granite, or hard sandstone, capable of‥taking a high polish.
d. absol. or intr. To become affected in the required or desired way: in various applications, as: to catch fire, kindle; to become coated or impregnated with something; to become inoculated; to become frozen; to catch the wind. Occas. pass. Cf. sense 6c above.
a1616 Shakespeare Henry V (1623) ii. i. 50, I can take [1600 talke], and Pistols cocke is vp, And flashing fire will follow.
1683 J. Moxon Mech. Exercises II. 310 He trys if his Balls will Take, that is‥: If he finds the Inck sticks to it equally all about‥, it Takes.
1781 Quebec Gaz. 11 Jan. 2/1 It has not been known to take so early as the month of December.
1793 Regal Rambler, or, Devil in Lond. 40 Our hero laid in a large cargo of fresh fuel, ready to touch and take like phosphorus.
1820 G. Simpson Jrnl. Occurr. in Athabasca Dept. (1938) 100 This is an unusual late season as the Lake usually takes from the 15th to the 20th Oct.
1830 J. Macmillan Let. 15 Dec. in G. P. T. Glazebrook Hargrave Corr. 1821–43 (1938) 58 We had a very mild fall. The river was not taken before 6th of Decr.
1845 Dickens Cricket on Hearth i. 30 Vaccinated just six weeks ago-o! Took very fine-ly!
1871 Scribner's Monthly 2 458 When the rivers are beginning to ‘take’ or freeze.
1890 B. A. Whitelegge Hygiene & Public Health xii. 264 Many [people] ‘take’ readily within five years [of vaccination].
a. trans. To include, comprise; to contain: = to take in at Phrasal verbs 1. Obs.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 15076 Þa fetless tokenn seȝȝþ goddspell Twinne mett. oþerr þrinne.
a1637 B. Jonson Under-woods i. iii. 10 in Wks. (1640) III, Hee whom the whole world could not take,‥Was now laid in a Manger.
b. Of water: to take (one) up to (the ankles, knees, shoulders), to take (one) over (the head), to submerge (one) to that depth. Now Sc.
1654 Z. Coke Art Logick To Rdr. sig. a7v, Truths that before delug'd you, will take you now but up to the Ancles.
1817 Scott Rob Roy III. iii. 74 Mountain torrents, some of which took the soldiers up to the knees.
1878 R. De B. Trotter Galloway Gossip Sixty Years Ago 15 The sea took him abune the knees.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. Sc. There's a deep hole there, that will take a man over the head.
VII. Senses related to VI, denoting intellectual action.
* To apprehend mentally, to conceive, understand, consider.
a. To receive and hold with the intellect; to grasp mentally, apprehend, comprehend, understand: = to take in at Phrasal verbs 1 (Now only in reference to the meaning of words.) to take (someone's) point (and variants): see to take a point at point n.1 Phrases 3i.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) John i. 5 And the liȝt schyneth in derknessis, and derknessis tooken [a1425 L.V. comprehendiden] not it.
?c1450 Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 4656 Goddis wisdome þat none may take [L. incomprehensibilis].
1551 R. Robinson tr. T. More Vtopia sig. Oviiiv, Thys kynde of learnynge‥they toke so muche the souner.
1666 S. Pepys Diary 30 July (1972) VII. 228 The girl doth take music mighty readily.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. vi. 278 The Reader will easily take the Meaning.
1860 Thackeray Roundabout Papers (1899) i. 170 You take the allegory? Novels are sweets.
1893 National Observer 11 Mar. 413/2 An audience‥quick to take his points.
b. transf. To apprehend the meaning of, understand (a person, i.e. what he says).
1513 G. Douglas tr. Virgil Æneid i. Prol. 318 Quha takis me nocht, go quhair thai haue ado.
1622 Bacon Advt. Holy Warre in Wks. (1879) I. 525/2 You take me right, Eupolis.
1707 J. Stevens tr. F. G. de Quevedo y Villegas Comical Wks. (1709) 350 Do you take me Sir?
1810 G. Crabbe Borough x. 142, I spoke my Thought—you take me—what I think.
1882 R. L. Stevenson New Arabian Nights II. 64, I am not in this affair for him. You take me?
a. With adv. or adv.phr. To understand or apprehend in a specified way. Also with person as obj. In quot. a1300, ‘to understand to be meant’: cf. 48b.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 1379 [God] Þe fader in cedre þou sal take, A tre of heght, þat has na make.
a1400 Cursor M. 28974 Chastiyng o flex[e]s foure fald to tak In praier, fasting, wand, and wak.
c1460 R. Roos tr. La Belle Dame sans Mercy 582 And so must he be take in every place.
1552 Bk. Common Prayer (new ed.) Communion (ad fin.), Leste yet the same kneelyng myghte be thought or taken otherwyse.
1642 tr. J. Perkins Profitable Bk. (new ed.) viii. §522. 228 So was the law taken in Anno 4. H. 3.
1665 J. Bunyan Holy Citie 164, I the rather take it thus,‥Because [etc.].
1721 R. Bradley Philos. Acct. Wks. Nature 155 If we take the Story of it right.
†b. With simple compl. To understand as, suppose to be, consider as: = to take‥for at sense 48; also, to understand to mean: = 48b. Obs.
13.. Cursor M. 28121 (Cott.) , And titter wald i lesyng make Þan man my worde vn-treu to take.
c1475 (1400) Apol. Lollard Doctr. (1842) 35 Þo hous of God her is tane þe congregacoun of feiþful men.
1538 Treat. Bps. Rome Supremacy i, In times past the Bishop of Constantinople tooke himself highest of all bishops.
1660 Milton Readie Way Free Commonw. (ed. 2) 6 They took themselves not bound by the light of nature or religion, to any former covnant.
1709 R. Steele Tatler No. 1. ⁋9, I take my self obliged in Honour to go on.
c. With subord. clause: To suppose, apprehend, assume as a fact, be of opinion (that‥). Usually take it.
c1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 460 Cristenmen taken ouer þat petre was cristis viker, & suyde hym in maner of lif.
1429 Rolls of Parl. IV. 346/1 So take that the saide Cominaltes been no Cominaltes corporat.
1538 Audley in T. Wright Three Chapters Lett. Suppression Monast. (1843) 240, I take it that your lordshypp ys at appoynt for me to have it.
1600 Shakespeare Merchant of Venice i. i. 63, I take it your owne busines calls on you.
a1616 Shakespeare Measure for Measure (1623) iv. ii. 108 As I take it, it is almost day.
1642 tr. J. Perkins Profitable Bk. (new ed.) v. §354. 155 It is commonly taken, that if a wife run away from her husband‥shee shall loose her dower.
1709 R. Steele & J. Addison Tatler No. 93. ¶4 Within this Height I take it, that all the fighting Men of Great-Britain are comprehended.
1842 Tennyson E. Morris 43, I take it, God made the woman for the man, And for the good and increase of the world.
1885 Law Times 80 118/2 The learned counsel might take it that this court overruled the objection.
d. With inf. To understand, consider, suppose, imagine, assume (to be or to do something).
1548 N. Udall et al. tr. Erasmus Paraphr. New Test. I. John 16 b, Men toke him to be mine inferiour.
1663 S. Butler Hudibras i. ii. 140 For Men he [sc. the Bear] alwayes took to be His friends, and Dogs the enemy.
a1677 I. Barrow Of Contentm. (1685) 157 He that taketh himself to have enough, what doth he need?
1719 D. Defoe Farther Adventures Robinson Crusoe 166, I take that Man to be a‥Penitent.
1878 T. H. Huxley Physiogr. 63 It may be taken roughly to represent one inch of rain.
e. to take (something) as done: to consider an omission not to have occurred; to take (something) as read: see read v. Phrases 9.
1893 E. F. Benson Dodo I. i. 9 You haven't congratulated me. Never mind, we'll take that as done.
48. to take‥for.
a. To suppose to be, consider as; often, with implication of error, to suppose to be (what it is not), to mistake for; to assume to be; also †to esteem or repute as (obs.: cf. 49). Freq. in phr. what or who(m) do you take me for? said as a challenge to a derogatory implication, as of foolishness, dishonesty, etc. take for granted: see granted adj. 2b.
a1500 (1400) Sir Torrent of Portyngale (1887) l. 1333 Gret lordys‥for a doughty knyght hym tase.
?1518 Cocke Lorelles Bote sig. B.iv, A man wolde take hym for a shrewe I trowe.
1579 S. Gosson Apol. Schoole of Abuse in Ephemerides Phialo f. 82, I am not so childishe to take euery bushe for a monster.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 498 We wil take it for gruanted that it pertaineth not to that ranke or order.
1632 W. Lithgow Totall Disc. Trav. ix. 396 An Eagle taking his bald pate for a white rocke, let a shell-fish fall on it.
1693 N. Tate in Dryden tr. Juvenal Satires xv. 303 So soft his Tresses‥You'd doubt his Sex, and take him for a Girl.
1712 J. Addison Spectator No. 289. ¶1, I have been sometimes taken‥for a Parish Sexton.
1847 A. S. Mayhew & H. Mayhew Greatest Plague vii. 87, I wanted to ask her who the dickens she took me for.
1889 R. L. Stevenson Master of Ballantrae x. 267 Do you take me for a fool?
1892 R. Kipling & W. Balestier Naulahka xvii. 202 ‘You won't get the chance,’ said Tarvin unshakenly.‥ ‘What do you take me for?’
1912 C. Mackenzie Carnival xxx. 293 ‘What do you take me for?’ enquired Irene. ‘I take you for what you are—a rotter.’
1921 W. J. Locke Mountebank xiii. 164 ‘You haven't given me away?’ ‘My good girl,’ I protested, ‘what do you take me for?’
1927 W. S. Maugham Constant Wife iii. 186 But, my poor John, whom do you take us for? Am I so unattractive that what I'm telling you is incredible?
1939 G. B. Shaw Geneva ii. 32 Then you went to school, did you? Begonia. Well, of course: what do you take me for?
1983 ‘R. B. Dominic’ Flaw in System xx. 129 What do you take me for? A simp?
b. To understand to mean, to interpret as. Now rare or Obs. †In quots. c1200, 1340 in converse sense: To reckon or count as, to include in the meaning of (obs.).
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 19029 Tacc nu þe sawle forr þatt mann. Þatt cumeþþ her to manne.
1340 R. Rolle Pricke of Conscience 2818 Alle þir four stedes‥for helle þai may alle be tane, Of whilk four purgatory es ane.
1596 J. Harington New Disc. Aiax sig. C2, Which word‥many of the simple hearers, & readers, take for a precious stone.
1664 J. Evelyn Acct. Archit. in tr. R. Fréart Parallel Antient Archit. 126 Otherwhiles again it [sc. the astragal] is taken for the Cincture or Coller next the Hypotrachelium.
1684 J. Phillips tr. N. A. de la Framboisière Art Physic iii. 95 Generally the Word Aposteme is taken for any Tumor which is preternatural.
a. To regard, consider, hold, esteem (as); to estimate, reckon (at so much).
1531–2 Act 23 Hen. VIII c. 3 That any Utlarie‥pleded or alleged‥shalbe taken but as voide plee.
1534 R. Whittinton tr. Cicero Thre Bks. Tullyes Offyces i. sig. G.2, He was take as a gret & a famous man.
1605 W. Camden Remaines i. 36 This is to be taken as a granted veritie.
1820 Examiner No. 620. 130/2 We are to take the word liberal‥as a piece of irony.
1893 Eng. Illustr. Mag. 10 310/2 An average length of stroke may be taken at about six yards.
†b. pa. pple. (with qualifying adv.) Reputed, esteemed. Obs.
1518 in Ld. Berners Froiss. (1812) Pref. 17 Sir John Style‥well beloued and well takyn in theis partes.
1526 Bible (Tyndale) Rom. xvi. 7 Andronicus and Junia my cosyns‥which are wele taken amonge the apostles.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Judith xvi. 21 Iudith was‥right honorably taken in all the londe of Israel.
1597 Bacon Ess. f. 5, A thing ciuile, and well taken euen in Monarchies.
** To conceive and exercise.
a. To begin to have or be affected by (a feeling or state of mind); to conceive; hence, to experience, entertain, feel (delight, pleasure, pride, etc.).See also delight n. 1b, fright n. 1, huff n. 2b, interest n. 7, offence n. 4c, pet n.2, to take pleasure at pleasure n. Phrases 5, pride n.1 5, umbrage n., etc.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 19558 Þatt tatt farisewisshe follc. Strang wraþþe takenn haffde.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 448 Agains him [God] he tok a pride.
1390 J. Gower Confessio Amantis II. 100 Wherof the king gret hevynesse Hath take.
a1393 Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) i. 2072 The kinges brother in presence Was thilke time, and gret offence He tok therof.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur iv. i. 119 Take none heuynesse, said Merlyn.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur vi. xv. 207 She took suche sorou that shee dyed.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Ezek. xxxvi. 31 Ye shal take displeasure at youre owne selues, by reason of youre synnes and abhominacions.
a1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) v. iv. sig. H.iijv, I beseech you, take with me no greefe: I did a true mans part, not wishyng your repreefe.
1694 Acc. Sev. Late Voy. Introd. 6 Upon some disgust taken at his Master.
1773 Life N. Frowde 15 Persons to whom I had taken so much Dislike.
1888 H. F. Lester Hartas Maturin III. ii. 41 Women do take prejudices.
b. absol. or intr. To take a fancy or liking: cf. to take to at Phrasal verbs 1, take with, to take with —— 3 at Phrasal verbs 2.
c1600 J. Dymmok Treat. Ireland (1842) 6 They are quicke and capable, kind harted where they take.
1874 T. Hardy Far from Madding Crowd I. xviii. 204 Mistress and man were engaged in the operation of making a lamb ‘take’, which is performed whenever a ewe has lost her own offspring, one of the twins of another ewe being given her as a substitute.
†c. to take on oneself : to become distressed or disturbed in mind: = to take on at Phrasal verbs 1. Obs.
1632 J. Hayward tr. G. F. Biondi Eromena 121 The Prince,‥because he found him not, tooke on him like a mad man.
a. To conceive and adopt with the will (a purpose, resolution, etc.), or with the intellect (an estimate, view, etc.); to form and hold in the mind. See also purpose n. 5a, rede n.1 Phrases 3a.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 11151 He‥tok his redd al for to fle, Priuelik and latt hir be.
1489 J. Barbour Bruce i. 143 He‥left purpos that he had tane.
1513 G. Douglas tr. Virgil Æneid v. i. 10 The Troianis in thare breistis tuk ane ges Quharfor it was.
1652 M. Nedham tr. J. Selden Of Dominion of Sea 37 A conclusion [was] taken to refer all to their several Princes.
1714 tr. I. Barrow Euclide's Elements (ed. 4) Pref., I took a Resolution to make use of most of the Schemes of the said Book.
1749 H. Fielding Tom Jones III. vii. ii. 12 Having taken a Resolution to leave the Country.
1891 Law Times 90 462/2 We do not take the alarmist view of our correspondent.
b. To conceive and exercise (courage, heart, etc.; †mercy (obs.), pity, etc.); to form in the mind and exhibit in action. (Sometimes nearly coinciding with sense 16a, to assume: cf. also branch VIII.) See also courage n. 4d, heart n. 49, heart of grace phr., pity n. 2.
13.. Coer de L. 5757 They wer bolde, her herte they tooke.
c1330 (1300) Guy of Warwick (Auch.) l. 4656 Now, sir, take þerof pite.
a1400 Cursor M. 27136 Quen þou tas to þe baldhede O gretter mans sinful dede.
1484 Caxton tr. G. de la Tour-Landry Bk. Knight of Tower (1971) ix. 23 Wherfore god took mercy on them.
1490 Caxton's Blanchardyn & Eglantine (1962) 154 Bycause they sholde take a better corage for the persone & sight of her.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 748/1, I take herte a gresse, as one doth that taketh a sodayne courage upon hym, je prens cueur en pance.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) 1 Chron. xix. 13 Take a good corage vnto the, and let us quyte oure selues manly.
1548 N. Udall et al. tr. Erasmus Matt. in Paraphr. New Test. xxii. 106 They takyng hart of grace agayne.
1560 T. Becon New Catech. in Wks. (1564) 516 a, They [sc. evil wives] shame not to answer‥They haue bene made dolts and foles long inough: it is now high time to take hart of grease vnto them. There is no worme so vile, but if it be troden vpon it will tourne again.
1583 A. Golding tr. J. Calvin Serm. on Deut. clvii. 971 When he seeth that we take heart of grasse against him.
1593 R. Bancroft Daungerous Positions ii. vii. 54 They haue taken greater boldnesse, and growen more rebellious.
1611 Bible (A.V.) 2 Chron. xv. 8 He tooke courage, and put away the abominable idoles.
1673 R. Head Canting Acad. 141 His wife‥took heart a-grace.
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 309 No Popish Priest had ever taken the confidence to speak to her of those matters.
a1734 R. North Examen (1740) ii. v. §10 321 The Loyallists began to chear up, and to take Heart-a-grace.
1823 Scott Quentin Durward I. vi. 127 The peasants, who at first shrunk from him in horror‥took heart of grace as he got to a distance.
1841 E. W. Lane tr. Thousand & One Nights I. 104 He took courage and entered.
1861 T. Hughes Tom Brown at Oxf. III. i. 3 In a day or two, however, Tom began to take heart of grace.
1888 Times (Weekly ed.) 18 May 3/4 The Arabs would have taken fresh heart.
1890 Times 14 Oct. 6/2 The non~union labourers‥took heart of grace and applied for work.
c. To exercise with the mind, in thought (note, notice, †intent, etc.), or with the mind and will, in action (care, heed, †diligence, etc.). Cf. branches VIII, IX. See also care n.1 3c, heed n. 1b, intent n. 2, keep n. 1, 2, note n.2 11c, notice n. 4, 1b, regard n. 1c, tent n.2, thought n. to take care of : see also care n.1 4b.
a1225 Leg. Kath. 1379 Þe deore Drihtin areaw us, & toc read to ure alde dusischipes.
c1305 St. Swithin 47 in Early Eng. Poems & Lives Saints (1862) 44 He þoȝte on þat þe godspel saiþ, þat me takþ of lute hede.
c1368 Chaucer Compl. Pite 82 But ye the rather take cure To breke that perilouse alliaunce.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Fairf. 14) l. 12592 Hamward þai went & to ihesu toke nane entent.
a1400 Cursor M. 27228 Ilk man þat will ta ȝeme.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 5729 Moyses þat time tok kepe, To his elde fadris schepe.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) l. 7937 Son he seide take good gome ȝyuen þou hast þin owne dome.
c1475 Songs & Carols 15th C. (Percy Soc.) 54 To here song then tok I intent.
1564–5 Reg. Privy Council Scotl. I. 320 Quhairunto hir Hienes and hir Counsall mon tak ee and regard.
1593 Shakespeare Venus & Adonis sig. Ciiij, Taking no notice that she is so nye.
1598 Shakespeare Love's Labour's Lost v. ii. 507 We wil turne it finely off sir, we wil take some care.
1600 Shakespeare Merchant of Venice v. i. 120 Giue order to my seruants, that they take no note at all of our being absent hence.
1784 R. Bage Barham Downs I. 230, I took no concern about any of them.
VIII. Various senses, nearly = make, do, perform (some action).(See also senses 19, 37, 51b, 51c)
a. To perform, make, do (an act, action, movement, etc.): usually with some notion of undertaking or taking upon one, and carrying out or carrying on; sometimes with that of getting.Often it forms with the object merely a periphrastic equivalent of the cognate vb.: e.g. to take a leap = leap v. (once), to take a look = look v. (once), to take one's departure = depart v. (See also take aim vb. at sense 64; to take action at action n. Phrases 2, journey n. 3, step n.1, turn n., walk n.1)
c1380 Sir Ferumbras (1879) 4029 To-morwe let ous our iorne take, Hamward aȝen to ryde.
c1412 T. Hoccleve De Reg. Princ. 3400 The kyng took a laghtre, and wente his way.
c1449 R. Pecock Repressor (1860) 156 At whiche men mowe lawȝe and take bourde for her symplenes.
1477 Earl Rivers tr. Dictes or Sayengis Philosophhres (Caxton) (1877) lf. 1, I determyned me to take that voyage.
1483 Caxton tr. Caton C vj b, Thou oughtest not to stryue ne take noyse wyth them that ben ful of superfluous wordes.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xiv. 341 Thei toke grete debate for me wyth Charlemagn wythin his pavylion.
1491 Churchwardens' Accts. St. Dunstan's, Canterb., They took an axion ageynst the executores of Wyllyam Belser.
1556 in J. G. Nichols Chron. Grey Friars (1852) 13 Thys yere the kynge‥toke his viage towarde Normandy.
1590 Spenser Faerie Queene iii. xi. sig. Nn7v, Like a winged horse he [sc. Neptune] tooke his flight.
1617 Acct.-bk. W. Wray in Antiquary (1896) 32 214 King James‥tooke his progresse towards Scotland.
1678 J. Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress 43 How many steps have I took in vain.
1693 Humours & Conversat. Town 3 Take a last farewel-look of this overgrown City.
1693 Humours & Conversat. Town 6 You might take a survey of the Rarities.
1711 E. Budgell Spectator No. 77. ¶1 We took a turn or two more.
1719 D. Defoe Farther Adventures Robinson Crusoe 312 Without measuring the Windings and Turnings it takes.
1719 D. Defoe Farther Adventures Robinson Crusoe 343 He takes a great Circuit about.
1766 O. Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield II. ix. 137 My wife, my daughter, and herself, were taking a walk together.
1845 M. Pattison in Christian Remembrancer Jan. 82 When Queen Brunchilde took her departure from Rouen.
1869 A. J. Wilson Vashti xxiv, I came to-day to beg you to take a trip somewhere, by sea or land.
1889 N. H. Kennard Landing Prize III. viii. 148 The salmon took a great leap.
1893 J. Ashby-Sterry Naughty Girl vii, I'll just take a turn down to the club and see what's going on.
†b. to take beginning : to begin, start, commence. (See also 31) Obs. [= Old Norse taka upphaf, to begin.]
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 12887 Þe ald testament hir-wit nu slakes, And sua þe neu bigining takes.
c1600 Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents (1833) 61 Vpoun the first day of August, the Parliament tuke begyning.
1601 R. Dolman tr. P. de la Primaudaye French Acad. III. 10 We must all beleeue‥that time tooke beginning with the world.
c. to take five (or ten) : to have a five- (or ten-) minute break. Also loosely, to relax. U.S. colloq.
1929 Amer. Speech 5 147 If the miner craves a rest while on the job, he takes five, a long enough period for a smoke.
1943 Yank 7 May 3 Six members of a reconnaissance group ‘take 10’ at a railroad station.
1961 G. T. Simon Feeling of Jazz 30 Man, I'm glad they said to take five, because this next arrangement looks rough.
1973 W. Sheed People will always be Kind vi. 60 ‘Could you go a little faster, Fatman?’‥ It was difficult making jokes.‥ ‘O.K. Fatstuff, take five, I was only kidding.’
d. to take a fall (U.S.): (a) slang to be arrested or convicted of a crime (cf. fall v. 23f, 23g); (b) colloq. to suffer a fall; similarly to take a spill ; also fig., to fall for (cf. to fall for —— at fall v. Phrasal verbs 2).
1942 L. V. Berrey & M. Van den Bark Amer. Thes. Slang §353/7 Fall in love…take a fall.
1942 L. V. Berrey & M. Van den Bark Amer. Thes. Slang §500/6 Be arrested…take or have a fall.
1953 W. S. Burroughs Junkie iii. 34 Jack had taken a fall on a safe job and was in the Bronx County jail awaiting trial.
1958 S. J. Perelman Most of S. J. Perelman 35, I took a rather nasty fall over a wastebasket.
1962 D. Lessing Golden Notebk. iv. 474 Molly rang late—says that Jane Bond has ‘taken a fall over’ Mr Green.
1968 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 15 Jan. 29/6 Even the best skier can take a spill.
1973 Times 9 Feb. 12/2 Michael Fish took a couple of falls.
a. to take counsel (†advice, †advisement) : to get advice, to consult, deliberate; †to devise; †to decide: see advice n. 5a, advisement n. Phrases 1b, counsel n. 1.
c1386 Chaucer Melibeus ⁋760 Thanne Dame Prudence‥delibered and took auys in hir self.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 4790 Þar of es god we ta consail.
1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. cxcvii. 173 The barons token counceyll bytwene hem.
1484 Caxton tr. G. de la Tour-Landry Bk. Knight of Tower (1971) xl. 63 Withoute takyng ony counceylle of her husbond.
1537 T. Cumptun in H. Ellis Orig. Lett. Eng. Hist. 2nd Ser. II. 92 After that they had communiked together and taken avisement.
1609 Bible (Douay) I. Judges xx. 32 Who‥tooke advise to draw them away from the citie.
1879 M. J. Guest Lect. Hist. Eng. xxxvi. 359 She took counsel with witches and magicians.
†b. intr. ? ellipt. for take advisement. Obs.
c1400 Emare 799 Grete lordes toke hem be-twene, That þey wolde exyle þe quene.
†54. trans. To arrange, fix, agree upon, conclude (a truce, peace, league, etc.). [Compare Old French prendre treve, 13th cent.] Obs.
c1400 Laud Troy-Bk. 8474 It was seyde to the Emperoure‥How ffight was taken hem be-twene.
1487 (1380) J. Barbour Bruce (St. John's Cambr.) xiv. 96 Quhill trewis at the last tuk thai.
1488 Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace iii. 333 With thair consent Wallace this pes has tayn,‥till x moneth war gayn.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. xxxiii. 48 So yt they wolde take no peace, nor truse, with ye kyng of Englande.
c1540 Destr. Troy 9072 The Troiens to the tenttes tristy men send, For a tru to be tan.
1609 Shakespeare Sonnets xlvii. sig. D2v, Betwixt mine eye and heart a league is tooke.
1656 S. Holland Don Zara iii. v. 194 Having taken a Truce with his Enemy, he would not be the first should break it.
55. to take adieu, farewell : to bid farewell, say good-bye, take one's leave. Const. of. Cf. to take leave at sense 21: see leave n.1 2. So †to take good night (obs.).
c1560 J. Rolland Seuin Seages Prol. ii, I‥tuke gude nicht, and said gude schirs adew.
1617 J. Taylor Three Weekes Observ. (1872) 2 We all went to the Christopher where we took a Bacchanalian farewell one of another.
1665 S. Pepys Diary 28 Aug. (1972) VI. 205, I think to take Adieu today of London streets.
1700 Dryden Chaucer's Cock & Fox in Fables 232 Last he drew A piteous Sigh; and took a long Adieu.
1821 Scott Kenilworth I. vii. 173 Thus saying, he took a final farewell.
1840 C. Thirlwall Hist. Greece VII. 195 [He] besought Demosthenes to forgive his temporary estrangement,‥and took a last farewell of him.
56. To lay hold of, raise, put forth, make (an objection, an exception, a distinction, etc.). See also exception n. 7c, objection n. 1b.
1542 King Henry VIII Declar. Scots 204 The Scottis wyl take exception to the homages of theyr prynces.
1830 J. F. W. Herschel Disc. Study Nat. Philos. 7 The objection which has been taken.
1830 J. H. Monk Life R. Bentley (1833) I. 303 Instead of doing so, they take a dilemma, and intimate a belief that either by the old statutes, or by the 40th of Elizabeth's, the Master is subject to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Ely.
1849 T. B. Macaulay Hist. Eng. II. vii. 265 Between punishments and disabilities a distinction was taken.
1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. x. 556 The distinction which they took was‥ingenious.
1864 Bp. S. Wilberforce Speeches on Missions (1874) 46, I know well the objections men can take.
IX. Senses denoting movement or removal (lead, convey, remove, deliver, etc.), and related senses.
* To convey, carry, conduct, remove.
a. To carry, convey; to cause (a person or animal) to go with one, to conduct, lead, escort. Also said of a vehicle, etc.: To convey, carry (a person) to some place. Also of a road, way, etc.: = lead v.1 6; so of a journey, etc. Also with over, to conduct through or show around (a building, garden, etc.).
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 8355 Iosaep ris upp & tacc þe child, & tacc þe childess moderr.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 23814 Es þar na wai‥Cun tak us better.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 5117 Tas Ruben þan wit yow.
a1400–50 Alexander 4886 Syne tas he with him titly his twelue tried prince[s].
1503 in Trans. Royal Hist. Soc. (1902) 153 Walter Robardes tooke this Alexr apart.
a1616 Shakespeare Comedy of Errors (1623) iv. i. 36 Take the stranger to my house.
1665 T. Manley tr. H. Grotius De Rebus Belgicis 832 Taking through the marshy Fields of Cazant Twelve hundred Walloons and Irish with him.
1719 D. Defoe Life Robinson Crusoe 245, I takes my man Friday with me.
c1810 W. Hickey Mem. (1918) II. xix. 251 She‥took me over the house, which was a complete a one as ever I saw.
1837 C. Fox Jrnl. 15 May in Mem. Old Friends (1882) iii. 16 Took them all over the Grove Hill gardens.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair xlviii. 433 Being obliged to take four of us in his carriage to wait upon His Majesty.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 15 897/1 The second stage of the journey takes the traveler through Egypt.
1880 Trollope Duke's Children III. xix. 215, I want to take her all over the house.
1908 Betw. Trent & Ancholme 55 A yard or two further takes us to the N.E. corner.
a1910 Mod., Will this road take me to Abingdon?
1911 Rep. Labour & Social Conditions in Germany (Tariff Reform League) III. 166 [He] was able yesterday to take a small deputation‥over the ‘Triumph’ works.
b. To carry or bear (a thing) with one; to carry to some place or person. In quot. 1883, to draw (something) through a liquid.
1390 J. Gower Confessio Amantis III. 217 [Eche] hath A pot of Erthe, in which he tath A lyht brennende in a kressette.
a1400 Sir Perc. 478 He‥Tuke with hym his schorte spere.
1488 (1478) Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) ii. l. 85 Thow Scot, to quhom takis thow this thing?
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) v. iii. 21 Take thy face hence.
a1616 Shakespeare Comedy of Errors (1623) iv. i. 37 And with you take the Chaine.
1768 J. Byron Narr. Patagonia 221 They will take from the ground a glove or handkerchief.
1858 E. B. Ramsay Reminisc. Sc. Life (1870) v. 118 She went out and did not take the door with her [i.e. shut it after her].
1883 R. Haldane Workshop Receipts 2nd Ser. 227/1 Take [the yarn] through dilute sulphuric acid, and wash very well.
c. fig. To induce (a person) to go; to be the cause of his going. (Cf. bring v. 1c.)
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair lxvii. 621 ‘Particular business,’ she said, took her to Bruges.
1856 J. H. Newman Callista (1890) 114 What takes you into the city this morning?
1883 P. Greg Sanguelac II. xi. 223 What took you out so late?
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. The business that took me to London.
d. In colloq. phr. you can't take it with you, in allusion to the impossibility of benefiting from earthly wealth after death.
1841 F. Marryat Masterman Ready II. ii. 22 He was very fond of money; but that they said was all the better, as he could not take it away with him when he died.
1923 G. Arthur Let. 16 Sept. in Further Lett. from Man of No Importance (1932) 153 Mr. Gladstone, when a dead millionaire was held up for his admiration because he had left large sums for charities, said, ‘Thank him for nothing; he was obliged to leave it somewhere as he couldn't take it with him.’
1937 G. S. Kaufman & M. Hart (title) You can't take it with you.
1952 A. Christie Mrs. McGinty's Dead vii. 48 ‘They inherited a little money when Mrs. McGinty died.’‥ ‘Well, that's natural enough.‥ You can't take it with you.’
1977 J. Porter Who the Heck is Sylvia? x. 87 You're not short of the odd penny.‥ And you can't take it with you, can you?
a. With from, off (hence sometimes simply): To carry away, to remove; to extract; to deprive or rid a person or thing of (with various shades of connotation): = to take away at Phrasal verbs 1, to take off 1 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take out 1a at Phrasal verbs 1: see also to take out of at Phrasal verbs 1. to take off one's feet : to carry off one's feet by force, as a wind or wave; also fig. So to take off one's balance , etc.
a1272 Luue Ron 64 in Old Eng. Misc. 95 Al deþ hit wile from him take.
a1300 Earliest Compl. Eng. Prose Psalter i. 5 Als duste þat winde þerthe tas fra.
a1400 Cursor M. 29546 (Cott. Galba) , It takes [Cott. steres] his cristendom him fra.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) i. 19 Saying, that they should take the head from the body of hym.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Psalms l. 11 Take not thy holy sprete fro me.
1567 Compend. Bk. Godly Songs (1897) 147 He fra me my Sin hes tane.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 73 He‥tooke from the towne the benefit of their haven.
1655 Sir E. Nicholas in N. Papers (Camden) II. 235 His decree is annulled and taken of ye file.
1678 S. Butler Hudibras iii. iii. 234 The Law severely contrabands, Our taking business, of Mens hands.
1818 Scott Heart of Mid-Lothian iii, in Tales of my Landlord 2nd Ser. II. 68 The doing so would‥take the case from under the statute.
1825 J. Nicholson Operative Mechanic 560 A plane, which takes a thin shaving off the surface of the wood.
1867 Trollope Last Chron. Barset i, John did take his eyes off his book.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. The sea was so rough when I was bathing that the waves took me off my feet.
b. to take the life of : to deprive of life, to kill. Also, to take one's (own) life : to kill oneself, commit suicide.
[a1400 Cursor M. 25831 His lijf þan sal be fra him tane.]
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xii. 306, I praye you‥that yourselfe wyl take the liff fro me, and cut of my hede.
a1616 Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 1 (1623) iii. i. 22 Thou layd'st a Trap to take my Life.
1766 O. Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield II. xi. 174 You imagine, perhaps, that a contempt for your own life, gives you a right to take that of another.
1847 Tennyson Princess v. 397 Take not his life: he risk'd it for my own.
1920 D. H. Lawrence Women in Love xv. 211 It was not a question of taking one's life—she would never kill herself.
1965 Amer. Speech 40 301 This person may indeed take his own life.
1981 Daily Tel. 18 June 19/2 A note left by them made it clear that they wanted to take their own lives and also wished to be buried in the same grave.
c. To remove by death. Also euphem. in pass., to die.
1552 Bk. Common Prayer (new ed.) Burial of Dead, Forasmuche as it hath pleased almightie God of his great mercie to take vnto hym selfe the soule of our dere brother here departed, we therefore commit [etc.].
1595 Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 3 i. iv. 168 Hard-harted Clifford, take me from the world.
1616 S. Mountagu in Buccleuch MSS (Hist. MSS Comm.) (1899) I. 247 God hath taken to himself my brother Walter Mountagu.
1632 T. Heywood 1st Pt. Iron Age v. i, in Wks. (1874) III. 338 Since the Fates Haue tane him from vs.
1749 T. Gray Let. 7 Nov. in Corr. (1971) I. 325 He who has preserved her to you so many years‥has taken her from us to himself.
1810 J. Porter Sc. Chiefs III. ii. 44 If all whom I love be lost to me here, take me then to thyself; and let my freed spirit fly to their embraces in heaven!
1864 Tennyson North. Farmer iii, ‘The amoighty's a taäkin o' you to 'issén, my friend’, a said.
1920 E. O'Neill Beyond Horizon ii. i. 69 It was God's will that he should be taken.
1977 B. Pym Quartet in Autumn i. 10 Old Snowy had long since died, ‘passed on’ or ‘been taken’, however one liked to put it.
d. To subtract, deduct.
a1616 Shakespeare Cymbeline (1623) ii. i. 54 This her Sonne, Cannot take two from twenty for his heart, And leaue eighteene.
1798 C. Hutton Course Math. I. 8, 6 − 2, denotes that 2 is to be taken from 6.
1876 E. Jenkins Blot on Queen's Head 28 Every one took 50 per cent. off Bobby's expletives.
1890 Sat. Rev. 16 Aug. 192/1 Twopence in the pound was taken off the tea-duty.
e. absol. with from: To detract from, lessen, diminish. Cf. to take away 3 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take off 11 at Phrasal verbs 1.
1633 P. Massinger New Way to pay Old Debts iv. i. sig. H4, Shall e're be sullied with one taint, or spot That may take from your innocence, and candor.
1697 Dryden Ded. Georgics in Wks. (1987) V. 140 It takes not from you, that you were born with principles of generosity.
1891 Temple Bar Oct. 254 It takes greatly from the pleasure.
f. intr. for pass. (with adv. or adv. phr.). To be capable of being, or adapted to be, taken off, out, to pieces, etc.; to be removable, detachable, etc.So, by extension, to take in and out = to be capable of being put in and taken out; so to take on and off .
1669 S. Sturmy Mariners Mag. ii. ii. 53 A Brass pair of Compasses‥and four Steel Points to take in and out.
1680 J. Moxon Mech. Exercises I. xiv. 237 The Stop-screw, to take out when the Hollow Axis moves in the Moving Collar.
1881 W. W. Greener Gun 78 Guns‥so constructed as to take to pieces and stow away in a small compass.
1892 St. James' Gaz. 8 Feb. 6/2 Yours [i.e. hair] takes off at night.
59. in various fig. senses.
a. To carry, draw, or lead in thought, etc.; with from, off, to distract.
a1616 Shakespeare Winter's Tale (1623) iv. iv. 344 Your heart is full of something, that do's take Your minde from feasting.
1670 C. Cotton tr. G. Girard Hist. Life Duke of Espernon ii. v. 238 An accident fell out that soon took the Duke off all thoughts of that Solemnity.
1742 W. Ellis London & Country Brewer I. (ed. 4) 41 These deluded People are taken into an Approbation of indeed an Ignis fatuus.
1890 Murray's Mag. VII. 65 Love‥took her out of herself, and soothed her sorrows.
†b. to take (a person) with one: to speak so that (he) can ‘follow’ or apprehend one's meaning; to enable (him) to understand one; to be explicit. (Usu. in imp.) Obs.
1599 Shakespeare Romeo & Juliet iii. v. 141 Soft take me with you, take me with you wife.
1695 W. Congreve Love for Love v. i. 83 Aye, but pray take me along with you, Sir.
†c. to take (a thing) with one: to bear in mind, keep in remembrance, take note of. Obs.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 715 Yet take here with you, that which William Newbrigensis‥writeth.
a1627 T. Middleton & W. Rowley Old Law (1656) ii. ii. sig. D4v, Oh y'are to hot sir! Pray coole your selfe and take September with you.
1746 Ld. Chesterfield Let. 23 Mar. (1932) (modernized text) III. 752 Take this along with you, that the worst authors are always the most partial to their own works.
1828 Scott Fair Maid of Perth v, in Chron. Canongate 2nd Ser. I. 120 Take it with you that I will never listen to them.
†d. To render, translate. Obs. rare.
c1430 Syr Gener. (Roxb.) 25 A clerk itt in to latyn tooke Att hertford out of a booke.
e. To bring or convey to a higher or lower degree; to raise or lower; to advance or put back. See also to take down at Phrasal verbs 1; peg n.1 3.
1589 Pappe with Hatchet To Father & two Sonnes. sig. A2, Now haue at you all my gaffers of the rayling religion, tis I that must take you a peg lower.
1890 Field 24 May 750/3 By steady play the score was taken to 18.
** To deliver, give, commit, give up.
†60. trans. To deliver, hand over; to give; to give in charge, commit, entrust. (= betake v. 1a, 1b, 2.) Const. to or dative. Obs. [In Layamon, in the early version rarely (2 instances), but in the later very commonly (22 instances), bitake is used as equivalent to bitæche, biteche (beteach v., to deliver); in 19 cases biteche of the earlier text becomes bitake in the later. In 4 cases the later version has in the same sense the simple take; this became from 1300 to 1530 quite established, and continued in some writers to c1560. This use was not in Norse, and is absent from northern Middle English. For the history see betake v.]
c1275 Laȝamon Brut 54 He‥wrot‥And þane hilke boc tock us to bisne.
c1290 S. Eng. Leg. I. 99/254 To lhesu crist ich habbe al-so al min heorte i-take.
1297 R. Gloucester's Chron. (Rolls) 2027 Some sede þat him betere were take is neueu conan Þe kinedom of þis lond.
c1300 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Otho) (1978) l. 11166 And ich wolle‥to hostage take þe mine sone [c1275 Calig. biteche þe mine þreo sunen].
c1300 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Otho) (1963) l. 1679 And takeþ [c1275 Calig. bi-tachet] hit his child.
1340 Ayenbite (1866) 171 Þe castel of his herte and of his bodye þet god him heþ ytake to loki.
1377 Langland Piers Plowman B. xv. 575 Owre lorde wrote it hym-selue In stone.‥ And toke it moyses to teche men til Messye com.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1869) II. 323 Moyses‥took his wif [uxori tradidit] þe ryng of forȝetnesse.
c1400 Prymer (1894) 78 We biseche þee þat þe soule of þi seruaunt‥be not take in-to þe hondis of oure enemy.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 15411 In to ȝoure hondes I shal him take [earlier MSS. teche].
1436 Let. in Burton & Raine Hemingbrough 393, I writte no more‥at this tyme, so I tak ȝow to þe Holy Trinite.
c1440 Promp. Parv. 485/2 Takyn, or delyueryn a thynge to a-nother, trado.
c1440 Gesta Rom. (Add. MS.) xlvi. 183 Take me the Ryng, and I shalle kepe it as my lyf.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) lxvi. 226 Al that ye take me to kepe shalbe sauely kept to your behoue.
1533 T. More Answere Poysened Bk. in Wks. 1063/1 When he tooke them the bread and bode them eate it.
a1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) i. v. sig. C.ijv, Who tooke thee thys letter‥?
a. To commit or devote oneself (to God, to Christ, etc.); also, to commit or betake oneself to one's legs, heels, weapons, or other means of protection or safety. Obs. exc. as in 61b.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 356 Aȝȝ fra þatt adam godd forrlet. & toc himm to þe deofell.
c1220 Bestiary 98 in Old Eng. Misc. 4 He‥forsaket ðore satanas,‥Takeð him to ihesu crist.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 23046 Þat al þis werld welth for-sok, And anerli to godd þam tok.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 749/1, I take me to my legges, I flye a waye.
1548 Hall's Vnion: Henry VII f. xlix, So deceauyng his kepers [he] toke him to his heeles.
1572 Taill of Rauf Coilȝear (1882) 941, I will forsaik Mahoun, and tak me to his micht.
1606 G. W. tr. Justinus Hist. viii. 38 Which people perceiuing them selues entrapped‥fearefully tooke them to their weapons.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 23 The Gyantes‥tooke them to their heeles and so were ouercome.
b. refl. To devote or give oneself up; to betake or apply oneself to (some pursuit, action, or object).
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 4032 Þir breþer tuain þam tok to red To dele þair landes þam bi-tuixs.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Trin. Cambr.) l. 13429 Of wif forsoke he hondbonde And toke [Vesp. turnd] him to þe better honde.
c1440 Alphabet of Tales 350 He lefte all his gude and tuke hym to pouertie.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 749/1, I take me to relygyon, or any other Kynde of Lyvynge wherein I must contynue.
1570 T. Wilson tr. Demosthenes 3 Orations Epist. sig. *jv, Such are contented‥to weare our Countrie cloth, and to take themselues to hard fare.
1576 G. Gascoigne Steele Glas sig. E.iiiiv, Art thou a craftsman? take thee to thine arte.
1707 tr. P. Le Lorrain de Vallemont Curiosities in Husbandry & Gardening 296 One of these Leaves‥took it self to walking as soon as he touch'd it.
1888 S. Veitch Dean's Daughter I. viii. 155, I‥took myself to the Chase.
1890 E. L. Arnold Phra the Phœnician v, She would not eat and would not speak, and at last took her to crying.
c. intr. with into: To give oneself up to: = to take to at Phrasal verbs 1. rare.
1756 J. Clubbe Misc. Tracts (1770) I. 105 Men had better read but few books at large, than take into this short and fallacious method of attaining‥imperfect knowledge.
1765 J. Clubbe Misc. Tracts (1770) II. 10 Some men taking into life of pleasure, others into an easy chair of sleep and indolence.
1864 T. Carlyle Hist. Friedrich II of Prussia IV. xv. vi. 92 Taking deeply into tobacco.
*** To set oneself, begin, to apply oneself.
a. intr. with inf. To set oneself, to begin (to do something). [After Old Norse taka at, e.g. taka at ganga to begin to go.] Obs.
1154 Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Laud) an. 1135, Dauid king of Scotland toc to uerrien him.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 8332 Off þa fowwre riche menn. Þatt tokenn þa to rixlenn.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 4772 Swa‥þatt hiss bodiȝ toc To rotenn bufenn eorþe.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 223 [Zacariȝe] toc to becnenn till þe follc.
c1330 (1300) Sir Tristrem (1886) l. 1000 Now haþ tristrem y tan Oȝain moraunt to fiȝt.
b. In later use, To apply oneself to a habitual action (cf. 61b).
1677 A. Yarranton England's Improvem. I. 157 Since the Welsh took to break up their Mountains, and sow them with Corn, they have Corn sufficient for themselves.
1839 Times 5 Oct., He took to cultivate his genius by reading political economy.
1856 Freeman in W. R. W. Stephens Life (1895) I. iv. 232, I have taken to write a little in a penny paper called the Star.
1890 Blackwood's Mag. 147 262/2 Their taking to smoke tobacco.
1891 G. Meredith One of our Conquerors III. xi. 233 She has taken to like him.
†c. refl. in same senses. Obs. rare.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) i. 54 The duke Benes‥toke hym selfe for to wepe strongly.
1628 R. Verstegan Restit. Decayed Intelligence (ed. 2) vi. 165 They tooke themselues first to rob vpon the sea coastes.
a1677 I. Barrow Serm. in Wks. (1683) II. 83 A state‥which they took themselves peculiarly to enjoy.
**** To take one's course, to go.
a. intr. To make one's way, go, proceed; = nim v. 2a, fang v.1 7. In early use chiefly with to; in later use with any prep. or adv. of direction: usually implying prompt action, cf. ‘start’, ‘strike’.See also to take to at Phrasal verbs 1; to take away 4 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take back 5 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take in 16 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take off 14 at Phrasal verbs 1.
?13.. Cast. Love 1686 In good tyme the were i-bore, That to that feste mowe takyn [Fr. peuent venir].
a1325 (1250) Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 1751 He toc and wente and folwede on.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. Wace (Rolls) 13566 So harde þe parties to-gidere tok.
13.. St. Erkenwolde 57 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1881) 267 Quen tithynges tokene to þe tone [= town].
a1400 Gosp. Nicod. 1122 (Cott. Galba) , On þe morn furth gan þai pas, to þaire iorne þai ta.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) ix. 224 Whan they were all mounted they toke on theyr way.
a1500 (1400) Sir Torrent of Portyngale (1887) l. 598 A lyty whyll be-fore the day, He toke in-to a Ryde-wey.
1606 G. W. tr. Justinus Hist. iii. 19 They tooke on their way to seeke a new place of habitation.
1615 G. Sandys Relation of Journey 193 Turning backe, we tooke vp the said streete to the West.
1622 J. Mabbe tr. M. Alemán Rogue ii. 282 They tooke downe through a groue of Alder trees.
c1645 I. Tullie Narr. Siege of Carlisle (1840) 5 Most of the fugatives took streight for Carlisle.
1707 J. Freind Acct. Earl of Peterborow's Conduct 221 My Lord took along the edge of the Hills.
1801 ‘Gabrielli’ Mysterious Husband III. 74, I took across some fields for the nearest way.
1863 W. C. Baldwin Afr. Hunting vi. 212 He [the elephant] gave chase, and I took up the hill.
1892 Mrs. E. Stewart in A. E. Lee Hist. Columbus, Ohio I. 264 A gang of wolves took after her.
b. intr. Of a road, a river, etc.: To proceed, go, run, strike off (in some direction). Obs. or dial.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 731 Where it [the high road] taketh Northward, it leadeth by Caldwell and Aldburgh.
1865 T. Carlyle Hist. Friedrich II of Prussia V. xviii. ii. 29 [The river] Moldau‥takes straight to northward again.
1894 S. R. Crockett Raiders 175 At this point the drove-road took over the Folds Hill.
c. refl. In same sense as a; also = to betake oneself, repair, resort to. See also to take off at Phrasal verbs 1.
1470–85 Malory Morte d'Arthur i. viii. 45 He took hym to a strong towre with v c good men with hym.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xvi. 385 After all thyse wordes, they toke theym selfe on their waye.
1822 Byron Werner i. i. 600 He will take himself to bed.
1866 Trollope Belton Estate III. viii. 210, I am to pack up, bag and baggage, and take myself elsewhere.
X. In idiomatic phrases with special obj.
64. take aim v. To direct a missile at something with intention to strike it; to aim.
1600 Shakespeare Midsummer Night's Dream ii. i. 157 A certaine aime he tooke At a faire Vestall.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Æneis x, in tr. Virgil Wks. 512 The Sabine Clausus came, And from afar, at Driops took his Aim.
1719 D. Defoe Farther Adventures Robinson Crusoe 100 He took a sure aim.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Sept. 546/1 He was in the act of taking aim with a carbine.
65. take alarm v. To accept and act upon a warning of danger; hence, to become alarmed or roused to a sense of danger.
1624 J. Smith Gen. Hist. Virginia i. 8 The towne took the Alarum before I ment it.
1689 T. Rymer View Govt. Europe 38 The people took the Alarm, and clamour'd for a Parliament.
1772 ‘Junius’ Stat Nominis Umbra II. lxviii. 344 Your natural benevolence took the alarm.
1825 New Monthly Mag. 13 398 His amour propre takes the alarm.
1893 Nat. Observer 7 Oct. 535/2 The pirate took the alarm in time.
66. take charge v. To assume the care or custody of; to make oneself responsible.
1389 in T. Smith & L. T. Smith Eng. Gilds (1870) 5 He shal take þe charge al sone as he is warned þerof.
1495 Act 11 Hen. VII c. 22 §1 A maister Ship Carpenter taking the charge of the werke.
1623 Shakespeare & J. Fletcher Henry VIII i. iv. 62 Place you that side, Ile take the charge of this.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair xli. 376 The Baronet promised to take charge of the lad at school.
†67. take day v. To appoint or fix a day for the transaction of some business; to make an appointment; to put off to another day. Also fig.
a1400 Octouian 1499 They‥toke day at the monthys ende Of playn batayle.
1477 Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Hist. Jason (1913) 165 She acorded to her this request and toke daye for to do hit.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. xxxii. 46 Then they toke day to come agayn a thre wekes after the Feast of saynt John.
1565 T. Stapleton tr. Bede Hist. Church Eng. v. xv. f. 171, To make quick confession of their sinfull actes and not to take dayes with God.
1642 T. Fuller Holy State ii. xix.* 126 He had rather disburse his life at the present, then to take day to fall into the hands of such remorslesse creditours.
68. take fire v.
a. lit. To become kindled or ignited; to begin to burn, to kindle, ignite: = to catch fire at catch v. 44.
1526 W. Bonde Pylgrimage of Perfection iii. sig. YYYvi, At ye laste they take fyre and bren.
1590 J. Smythe Certain Disc. Weapons 21 Through the moystnes of the weather‥the powder will take no fire.
1669 S. Sturmy Mariners Mag. v. 89 Dip therein one end of your short Pieces, least they take Fire at both ends together.
1771 T. Smollett Humphry Clinker II. 126 The soot took fire.
1885 Cent. Mag. 29 874/1 These‥chimneys‥often took fire.
b. fig. To become ‘inflamed’ with some emotion or the like; to become excited, esp. with anger; to become enraged, to ‘fire up’.
1607 G. Wilkins Mis. Inforced Marr. i, in W. C. Hazlitt Dodsley's Sel. Coll. Old Eng. Plays (1874) IX. 473 On which tinder he soon takes fire, and swears you are the man.
1608 Merry Devil of Edmonton in W. C. Hazlitt Dodsley's Sel. Coll. Old Eng. Plays (1875) X. 239 How this jest takes fire.
1761 D. Hume Hist. Eng. III. liv. 171 The Commons took fire, and voted it a breach of privilege.
1844 C. Thirlwall Hist. Greece VIII. lxii. 177 Cleomenes took fire at the affront.
1890 Temple Bar June 17 Lithgow's soul took fire with sympathy.
69. take hold v.
a. To get something by one's own act into one's (physical) hold; to grasp, seize: = to catch hold of at catch v. 45, lay hold (lay v.1 22). Const. of; on, upon (arch.). Also said of things.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 748/2, I take holde apon one, jempoygne.
1611 in J. Barmby Churchwardens' Accts. Pittington (1888) 161 To picke forth the ould lyme and morter that the new might better take hold.
1613 S. Purchas Pilgrimage 19 [The Indian] Figge-tree‥whose branches‥doe bend themselves downewards to the earth, where they take holde, and with new rooting multiply.
1754 J. Shebbeare Matrimony (1766) II. 193 [She] fell on her Knees‥taking hold on the Skirt of his Coat.
1816 Scott Antiquary I. vii. 156 Take haud o' my arm, my winsome leddy!
b. fig. To get a person or thing into its (or one's) ‘hold’ or power; usually with of (on, upon arch.); of a feeling, a disease, etc.: to seize and affect forcibly and more or less permanently; of fire, to ‘lay hold’ of (something), begin to burn. Also, to seize, avail oneself of (an opportunity).
1577 W. Harrison Descr. Eng. (1877) ii. vi. i. 164 A thing latelie sproong vp, when pampering of the bellie began to take hold.
1608 Shakespeare King Lear iv. v. 232 Hence least that the infection of his fortune take like hold on thee.
a1616 Shakespeare Othello (1623) i. iii. 55 Nor doth the generall care Take hold on [1622 of] me.
1708 J. C. Compl. Collier 7 in T. Nourse Myst. of Husbandry Discover'd (ed. 3) , Another dangerous sort of bad Air, but of a fiery Nature like Lightning,‥if it takes hold of the Candle.
1725 N. Robinson New Theory of Physick 292 When the Disease has taken any Hold of the Patient.
1889 ‘M. Gray’ Reproach of Annesley iii. vi, A sense of her bitter bereaval took hold of her.
c. (with of) To take possession and management of, take under one's control. ? U.S.
1877 R. W. Raymond Statist. Mines & Mining 222 They‥know that a company of moneyed men taking hold of their camp will have to spend a considerable amount of money before they can expect to recoup their investment.
1897 R. Kipling Capt. Courageous ix, No, I only capt—took hold of the ‘Blue M.’ freighters—Morgan and M'Quade's old line—this summer.
†d. To attach itself, take root. Obs. rare—1.
a1400 Cursor M. (Gött.) l. 10009 Þat er four vertus principalys,‥All oþer vertus of þaim tas [Vesp. has] hald.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 9350 It tok neuer in þer hertes hald.
e. To apply oneself to action; to set to; to take an active part. dial. and U.S.
1868 J. C. Atkinson Gloss. Cleveland Dial., Tak' hold, to undertake; an office, or specified performance or duty.
1870 L. M. Alcott Old-fashioned Girl xi, I'm in despair, and shall have to take hold myself, I'm afraid.
1888 J. Bryce Amer. Commonw. III. lxxxvi. 153 To believe that things will come out right whether he ‘takes hold’ himself or not.
70. take horse v.
a. To mount a horse; to get on horseback (esp. for a journey): see sense 24c.
[c1450 Brut (E.E.T.S.) 450 On þe morow he toke hys hors and rode to Wyndysore vn-to our Kyng.]
c1475 Harl. Contin. Higden (Rolls) VIII. 544 He toke his hors with a pryvy meyney.
a1533 Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) vii. 18 After masse [they] toke theyr horsses.
1675 T. Brooks Golden Key Ep. Ded. sig. a, Bajazet,‥Tamberlain a Tartarian took prisoner,‥and used him for a foot-stool, when he took horse.
1743 J. Wesley Jrnl. (1749) 9 Just as I was taking horse, he return'd.
1889 Universal Rev. Oct. 263 The princes‥took horse and fled.
b. Mining. (See quot. 1855) local.
1855 J. R. Leifchild Cornwall: Mines & Miners 88 When a lode divides into branches, the miners say it has taken horse.
c. Of a mare: see sense 39b, and horse n. 1c.
1577 B. Googe tr. C. Heresbach Foure Bks. Husbandry iii. f. 118, The Mare will not take the Horse.
1688 London Gaz. No. 2378/4, A brown bay Filly,‥being locked from taking Horse.
71. take possession v.
a. To get something by one's own act into one's possession; to enter into possession. With of: to take into one's possession, make oneself possessor of, take for one's own, appropriate: see possession n. 1c.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) 1 Kings xxi. 15 Vp, and take possession of the vynyarde of Naboth the Iesraelite.
a1616 Shakespeare Two Gentlemen of Verona (1623) v. iv. 128 Take but possession of her, with a Touch.
a1641 R. Montagu Acts & Monuments (1642) i. 21 They entred upon, and took possession of the Land of Promise.
17.. Rem. Reign Will. III in Harl. Misc. (1809) III. 359 The troops‥would, in all likelihood, have took possession of White-hall.
1852 H. B. Stowe Uncle Tom's Cabin xxxiv, Then he came, the cursed wretch! he came to take possession.
b. fig. (with of) To begin to ‘possess’, dominate, or actuate: cf. possession n. 4, 3b.
a1616 Shakespeare King John (1623) iv. i. 32 His words do take possession of my bosome.
1849 T. B. Macaulay Hist. Eng. II. vi. 63 Another fatal delusion had taken possession of his mind.
72. In many other phrases, as to take account n., acquaintance n., arms (from arm n.2), breath n., the cake n., one's chance n., adj., and adv., the change n. out of, Christendom n., count n.1, one's cross n., effect n., end n., flight n.1, force n.1, head n.1, heels (in heel n.1 20), the initiative n., knowledge n., the law n.1, the lead n.1, leave n.1, order n., record n.1 and adj., rise n., root n.1, share n.1, stock n.1 and adj., witness n., etc., for which see the ns. (See also to take up at Phrasal verbs 1.)
PV1. In combination with adverbs, forming the equivalents of compound verbs, chiefly transitive. to take aback
trans. see aback adv. 3 (lit. and fig.).
1748 B. Robins & R. Walter Voy. round World by Anson ii. vii. 215 We were obliged to ply on and off‥and were frequently taken aback.
1796 in Ld. Nelson Dispatches & Lett. (1846) VII. p. xxxix, At 1/ 4 past 8 taken flat aback with a strong wind and a high sea from the N.E.b.E.
1829 F. Marryat Naval Officer I. ix. 266, I was so taken aback with the sudden appearance and address of this beautiful vision, that I knew not what to say.
1844 J. T. J. Hewlett Parsons & Widows liii, I never saw a man more ‘taken aback’ as the sailors say.
1889 J. K. Jerome Three Men in Boat xvii, Blest if it didn't quite take me aback.
to take about
trans. To conduct on a round of sight-seeing or on excursions, etc.
1823 P. Panam Mem. Young Greek Lady 117 If you wish for any thing speak to him; he will take you about everywhere.
1894 E. Fawcett New Nero Proem 8 He‥took him about for almost an hour, showing him a good many places.
1903 A. W. Patterson Schumann 113 He seems to have taken the Laidlaw ladies about a good deal.
to take again
1. trans. To resume: see simple senses and again adv.
†2. To withdraw, recall: = to take back at Phrasal verbs 1: cf. again adv. 2. Obs.
1474 Caxton tr. Game & Playe of Chesse (1883) iii. i. 78 He began to take agayn his vertuous werkis and requyred pardoun and so retourned to god agayn.
1728 A. Ramsay Bob of Dunblane ii, Lest I grow fickle, And take my word and offer again.
to take apart
1. trans. To dismantle or take to pieces; also fig., to search thoroughly; to demolish or wreck.
1936 C. Sandburg People, Yes 60 Let's take it apart to see how it ticks.
1958 M. Allingham Hide my Eyes xv. 150, I am going to take this shed apart if it costs me my ticket.
1968 ‘E. Peters’ Grass Widow's Tale xi. 140 It has to be somewhere here. Stands to sense. Go take that little front room apart, Skinner.
1969 Oz Apr. 25/1 There will be a lobby of Parliament which far from pleading with MPs will probably take Whitehall apart.
1974 D. Seaman Bomb that could Lip-read xxiv. 243 There is going to be one God-awful search for the man.‥ They will take this hamlet apart.
1978 M. Puzo Fools Die xv. 161 The new kids were wilder and started taking everything apart.
2. trans. To thrash or beat soundly; also fig., to attack with argument or criticism.
1942 N. Balchin Darkness falls from Air v. 94 Supposing I went round and took him apart?
1963 Listener 21 Feb. 350/3 The Labour Party's new leader was taken apart with the sort of cheerful and dedicated venom hitherto reserved for Tory Cabinet ministers.
1969 ‘J. Ashford’ Prisoner at Bar xii. 117 And don't get funny with Bladen‥or he'll take you apart at the seams.
1971 S. E. Morison European Discov. Amer.: Northern Voy. vii. 242 Manuel C. Baptista de Lima‥has politely taken me apart and argued for the 1492 date.
1976 Birmingham Post 16 Dec. 12/2 League leaders Liverpool were taken apart by the speed, skill and determination of the entire Villa side.
to take away
1. trans. To remove, withdraw, abstract; to remove by death; to subtract: see sense 58 and away adv. Also = to put away at put v. Phrasal verbs 1. (U.S.).
a1300 Cursor Mundi 297 If þou ta þe light awai.
1388 Wyclif Psalms I. 13 [li. 11] Take thou not awei fro me thin hooli spirit.
1415 Sir T. Grey in 43rd Rep. Deputy Keeper Public Rec. (1882) 583 A sefenneghte after that Murdok of Fyche was take away.
1477 Earl Rivers tr. Dictes or Sayengis Philosophhres (Caxton) (1877) lf. 38, To cut the vynes, & take awey the euil branches therof.
1509 S. Hawes Pastime of Pleasure (1845) xliv. 215 Do not I, Tyme, take his lyfe away?
1585 T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie iv. xxxiii. 156 To take away or mittigate some of [these laws].
c1600 Timon (1980) iii. i. 41 Yee theeues restore what yee haue tane away.
1736 T. Lediard Life Marlborough I. 131 It pleased God to take away His Majesty.
1886 A. Sergeant No Saint ix, It took away his appetite.
1890 Jrnl. Educ. 1 June 341/1 Take away 4 cows from 17 cows.
1919 E. O'Neill Where Cross is Made in Moon of Caribbees (1923) 16 They say for his own good he must be taken away.
2. absol. To clear the table after a meal.
a1475 Bk. Curtasye (Sloane 1986) l. 820 in Babees Bk. (2002) i. 326 Whenne þay haue wasshen and grace is sayde, Away he takes at a brayde.
1768 L. Sterne Sentimental Journey II. 117 Mon Dieu! said La Fleur,—and took away.
1809 B. H. Malkin tr. A. R. Le Sage Adventures Gil Blas IV. xi. v. 290 The servants‥had taken away and left us to ourselves.
1872 S. Butler Erewhon viii. 64 She returned in about an hour to take away.
3. absol. To detract from: = 58e.
1875 E. A. Freeman Sketch Subj. Lands Venice (1881) 257 The slight touch of Renaissance in some of the capitals‥in no sort takes away from the general purity of the style.
1889 R. L. Stevenson Master of Ballantrae iv, This takes away from the merit of your generosity.
4. intr. To go away, make off: see 63.
1838 C. Waterton Ess. Nat. Hist. p. xxv, After eluding him in cover for nearly half an hour, being hard pressed, I took away down a hedgerow.
1850 R. G. Cumming Five Years Hunter's Life S. Afr. II. xxiv. 163 They set the dogs after him, when he took away up the river.
to take back
1. trans. To take possession of again, resume: see simple senses and back adv.
a1771 T. Gray tr. Dante in Wks. (1884) I. 159 Take back, what once was yours.
1908 Daily Chron. 26 Oct. 4/6 Molière never said, ‘I take my goods where I find them’, but ‘I take back my goods where I find them’.
2. To withdraw, retract, recall, unsay (a statement, promise, etc.): cf. back adv. 7.
1775 A. Adams in Familiar Lett. (1876) 86, I had‥made some complaints of you, but I will take them all back again.
1873 M. Collins Squire Silchester I. ix. 131, I shall take back my yes if you are troublesome.
3. To carry back in thought to a past time; cf. back adv. 4.
1889 W. H. Mallock Enchanted Island 251 These churches took me back to the crusaders.
1890 Temple Bar May 43 The boy's letter has taken me back ten years.
4. = to take aback at Phrasal verbs 1 (fig.): see aback adv. 3 ? dial.
?a1860 Mrs. H. Wood House of Halliwell (1890) II. i. 6 Hester was never so taken back in her life.
?a1860 Mrs. H. Wood House of Halliwell (1890) II. v. 116 She was ‘taken back’, as the saying runs.
5. intr. To go back, return. ? Obs. exc. dial.
1674 N. Fairfax Treat. Bulk & Selvedge To Rdr., Being quite lost in a wilde and a frightful on and on, I e'en took back again where I was.
1889 R. L. Stevenson Master of Ballantrae xi. 284 Having‥forgot my presence, he took back to his singing.
to take down
1. trans. To remove from a higher to a lower, or from an upright to a prostrate, position; to lower; to carry down; to cut down, fell (a tree); to pull down (a house, etc.: implying also ‘take to pieces’); to distribute (type).
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 11664 ‘Ioseph’, sco said, ‘fain wald I rest’.‥ Son he stert and tok hir dun.
a1500 (1400) Sir Torrent of Portyngale (1887) l. 1426, I Rede, we take down sayle & Rowe.
1548 in E. Green Somerset Chantries (1888) 116 One of theis ij churches maye well be spared and taken downe.
a1653 H. Binning Serm. (1845) 425 It taketh down the tabernacle of mortality.
1751 C. Labelye Descr. Westm. Bridge 81 Whilst the Arches were unbuilding and taking down.
1818 in R. Willis & J. W. Clark Archit. Hist. Univ. Cambr. (1886) I. 573 Taking down three trees.
1886 Troy (U.S.) Daily Times 2 Jan. 1/3 A boat's crew‥was taken down by a whale near the Cape Verde islands.
1909 R. Renwick in Marwick Edinb. Guilds Pref. 6 The printers, seeing no early prospect of the release of their type‥, took it down.
2. With various implications: (a) to swallow; †(b) to cause (a speaker) to sit down (obs.); (c) in Falconry, to cause (a hawk) to fly down; (d) in a school, to get above (another scholar) in class; so of a boat in a race, to get in front of (another boat); (e) to lead (a lady) down to dinner at a party.
1607 B. Jonson Volpone iii. vii. 94, I will take downe poyson, Eate burning coales, do any thing.
1656 T. Burton Diary (1828) I. 45 Captain Hatsel was speaking to have the debate put off till Monday, but Colonel Purefoy took him down.
1667 N. Fairfax in Philos. Trans. (Royal Soc.) 2 549 Mr. Morley‥was advised by some to take down a spoonfull of good English Honey.
1828 J. S. Sebright Observ. Hawking 36 They are always taken down after having flown unsuccessfully at their game.
1840 M. Edgeworth Let. 30 Dec. (1971) 573 Sir John Campbell took me down to dinner and I was seated of course beside him.
1843 Dickens Martin Chuzzlewit (1844) xix. 240, I took him down once, six boys, in the arithmetic class.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair v. 34 Dobbin‥was ‘taken down’ continually by little fellows.
1887 Mrs. J. H. Perks From Heather Hills II. xviii. 308 A quiet dinner-party, with a nice, sensible man to take you down.
3. fig. To abase, humble, humiliate, abate the pride or arrogance of. In quot. 1562, ? to rebuke, reprimand. to take (a person) down a peg: see to take (a person) down a peg (or two) at peg n.1 3a.
1562 in F. J. Furnivall Child-marriages Diocese Chester (1897) 112 She had spoken to the said Custance, and taken her downe for the same.
1593 G. Peele Famous Chron. King Edward the First sig. F2v, Ile take you downe a botton hole.
1608 E. Topsell Hist. Serpents 228 For reuenge & taking downe the pride of this young man.
1796 M. Robinson Angelina II. 27 He seems to experience‥satisfaction in what he calls taking me down.
1857 F. D. Maurice Epist. St. John i. 4 Whatever takes down a young man's conceit must be profitable to him.
4. To lower, diminish, lessen, abate, reduce; to lower in health or strength, bring low, depress. Now Sc. and north. dial.
1697 Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics iii, in tr. Virgil Wks. 102 As for the Females,‥Take down their Mettle, keep 'em lean and bare.
1719 E. Baynard Health (ed. 2) 22 By Degrees take down your Heat.
1811 Self Instructor 539 Olive colours‥are first put in green, and taken down again with soot.
a1856 W. Hamilton Lect. Metaphysics (1859) I. xviii. 342 Taken down with a bilious fever. [See Eng. Dial. Dict.]
5. To write down so as to use or preserve (what is said); to take a written report or notes of. Also, with person as obj.: to write down the words of, to take dictation from.
1712 W. Rogers Cruising Voy. 248, I took down the Names of those that had any.
1793 Trans. Soc. Arts (ed. 2) 5 121 The precision with which you took down their answers.
1883 W. R. Morfill Slavonic Lit. iii. 48 These ballads had been taken down about the middle of the eighteenth century.
1883 ‘M. Twain’ Life on Mississippi xxii. 247, I enlisted a poet for company, and a stenographer to ‘take him down’.
1885 C. H. Eden George Donnington I. xii. 240 Reporters would take down the speeches.
1928 D. H. Lawrence Woman who rode Away 18 She certainly didn't want to take him down in short hand.
6. spec. To record a contentious statement made in a legislative assembly with a view to invoking disciplinary procedure.
1784 Universal Mag. Jan. 45/1 Gen Conway said that he was ready to maintain what he had said. Let the right hon. gentleman move to take down his words, and he would make his charge.
1863 Illustr. Times 20 June 422/2 Mr Cox had‥insinuated that‥Lord Ranelagh wished to have power to flog volunteers; and on Monday Mr. Ormsby Gore rose and denounced these words as ‘scandalous and unfounded’. Whereupon Sir Robert Jackes Clifton jumped up and moved that the words were taken down.
1934 Sun (Baltimore) 3 May 1/4 Representative Pettingill‥threatened to invoke disciplinary procedure against Mr. Britten by means of what is known in the House as ‘taking down’ his words.
7. To cheat, trick, swindle. Austral. slang.
1895 Argus (Melbourne) 5 Dec. 5/2 [The defendant] accused him of having ‘taken him down’, stigmatised him as a thief and a robber.
to take forth
1. trans. To lead forth, conduct out of a place; to bring forth, take out of a receptacle, produce; fig. to further, advance.
a1300 Cursor M. 2693 (Cott.) , Abram tok forth his men.
c1460 Battle of Otterburn xxxvi, in F. J. Child Eng. & Sc. Pop. Ballads (1889) III. vi. 297/1 The letters fayre furth hath he tayne.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 748/1, I take forthe a man, I avaunce hym.
1890 W. Besant Demoniac xv, When he [Damien] was taken forth to have his flesh wrenched off with red-hot pincers.
†2. take forth one's way: to go forth, set forth (see 25b); also absol., to proceed. Obs.
1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. x. 10 On the iiii. day they toke forth theyr way.
1674 N. Fairfax Treat. Bulk & Selvedge 187 We shall take forth to our last.
†3. To learn; transf. to teach: = to take out at Phrasal verbs 1.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 748/1, I take forthe, as a childe, or a scoler dothe a newe lesson, je apprens.‥ Take hym forthe a newe lesson.
1549 T. Solme in H. Latimer 2nd Serm. before Kynges Maiestie To Rdr. sig. Avv, The gettynge of goodes and rytches, before thou hast well learned & taken furth of the lesson, of well vsyng the same.
1591 H. Savile tr. Tacitus Hist. in Ende of Nero ii. lxxxiv. 102 Taught by ill masters, hee tooke foorth [L. didicit] a bad lesson.
to take in
1. To take, draw, or receive into itself, or into something (see simple senses and in adv.); to admit, absorb, imbibe; to receive as a tributary; to eat or drink, to swallow; to breathe in, inhale; to take on board (a ship). In quot. 1583 absol. to admit or let in water, to leak.
13.. Cursor M. 6066 (Cott.) , Siþen sal ilk hus in take A clene he-lambe, wit-vten sake.
c1400 Mandeville's Trav. (Roxb.) i. 4 It takes in to him xl. oþer ryuers.
1495 Trevisa's Bartholomeus De Proprietatibus Rerum (de Worde) xvii. ii. sig. Njv/2, Full of holys to take in ayre.
1583 Life Bp. St. Androis Pref. in J. Cranstoun Satirical Poems Reformation (1891) I. 350 He lattis his scheip tak in at luife and lie.
1585 T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie i. x. 12 b, We took in fresh water out of a wel.
1637 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. (new ed.) i. 547 The River Trent‥taking in the River Soure from the field of Leicester.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. v. 103 The first of these takes in their Nourishment by their external‥Absorbent Vessels.
1777 A. Hamilton Let. 6 July in Papers (1961) I. 282 The Ships are taking in water and provisions for two months.
1890 Chambers's Jrnl. 10 May 292/1 She took in amazingly little water.
1892 Harper's Mag. Sept. 596/2 It‥readily takes in and yields moisture.
2. To receive (money) in payment, subscriptions, etc.; to receive and undertake (work) to be done in one's own house for pay.
1699 in Millington's Sale Catal. Skinner & Hampden Libraries, Subscriptions are taken in by John Hartley, over against Gray's-Inn in Holborn.
1832 Examiner 403/1 She took in washing only for her amusement.
1889 N. H. Kennard Landing Prize II. xii. 209 We supported ourselves‥by taking in plain needle-work.
1892 Idler June 547 He was taking in more money than he had ever taken in before.
3. To subscribe for and receive regularly (a newspaper or periodical): = sense 15d.
1712 J. Addison Spectator No. 488. ¶2 Their Father having refused to take in the Spectator.
1779 Mackenzie in Mirror No. 2. ⁋3 A coffee-house, where it is‥taken in for the use of the customers.
1891 Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. 150 704/1 Many of them take in the French paper just as they buy ‘Punch’.
4. Cards. To take (a card) into one's hand from the pack.
1879 ‘Cavendish’ Card Ess. 69 The holder of the ace of trumps ruffed, i.e. he put out four cards and took in the stock.
1891 Field 28 Nov. 843/1 If the non-dealer takes in the king, he ought‥to lead it.
5. To lead or conduct into a house, room, etc. Also spec., to lead in (to dinner). Cf. to take down 2(e) at Phrasal verbs 1, to take out 3 at Phrasal verbs 1.
c1450 Cov. Myst. (Shaks. Soc.) xxvii. 268 Take hym in, serys, be the honde.
1863 A. J. Munby Diary 3 June in D. Hudson Munby (1972) 165 The new Lord of the Admiralty‥and his wife: whom I took in to supper.
1887 M. Monkswell Jrnl. 25 May in Victorian Diarist (1944) 132 We dined with the Dean [of Hereford] that very evening. He took me in.
1893 Temple Bar XCVIII. 469 John took Miss Everard in to supper.
6. To receive or admit as inmate or guest.
1539 Bible (Great) Matt. xxv. 35, I was herbourlesse, and ye toke me in [ Wycl. herboriden me: Tindale, Geneva, lodged me].
1562 J. Mountgomery in Archaeologia XLVII. 231 Hospitalles‥then the poore souldior‥shoulde be taken yn, cured,‥and healed.
1702 N. Rowe Tamerlane iv. i, Why stand thy‥Doors still open To take the wretched in?
1840 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 1 iii. 265 Invalid horses are taken in‥and treated at the hospital.
1849 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 10 ii. 413 No tenant-cottager shall take in any lodger.
†7. To receive or accept into some relation (e.g. into surrender, or as hostage or ally). Obs.
1602 Ld. Mountjoy Let. in F. Moryson Itinerary (1617) ii. 214 By the generall advice of the Counsell I tooke in Turlough mac Henry.
1606 J. Marston Wonder of Women ii. i, Her father‥on suddain shall take in Revolted Syphax.
†8. To capture, take prisoner, conquer (in war); to ‘take’ a town. Cf. sense 2. Obs.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1876) VI. 285 Leo‥wente to Seynt Peter‥wiþ þe letayne, and was i-take in, and his eyȝen i-put out, and his tonge i-kut of.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Jer. xlix. 1 Why hath youre kynge then taken Gad in?
1684 Scanderbeg Redivivus v. 109 His Majesty took in Raskaw, a Considerable place on the Deinster.
1713 H. Felton Diss. Reading Classics 13 Open Places are easily taken in.
9. To bring into smaller compass, draw in, reduce the extent of, contract, make smaller; to shorten, narrow, or tighten; to furl (a sail). take in a reef: to roll or fold up a reef in a sail so as to shorten the sail: see reef n.1 1a.
?1518 Cocke Lorelles Bote sig. C.j, Mayne corfe toke in a refe byforce.
1641 J. Jackson True Evang. Temper ii. 153 But I must contract my selfe, and take in this saile of speech.
a1800 W. Cowper Horace ii. Ode x. vi, If fortune fill thy sail‥Take half thy canvas in.
1836 Dickens Pickwick Papers (1837) ix. 87 Strapping a buckle here, and taking in a link there.
1841 R. H. Dana Seaman's Man. ix. (heading) Making and taking in sail.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair xliii. 391 Sure every one of me frocks must be taken in—it's such a skeleton I'm growing.
1889 A. Conan Doyle Micah Clarke xxvii. 281, I took in one hole of my sword-belt on Monday.
1897 Outing 30 255/1 Take in leaders when about a team's length from corner; then take in wheelers a bit, off-wheeler more than near—in fact, many only take in off-wheel rein a couple of inches.
10. To enclose (a piece of land, etc.); to take into possession (a territory, a common), or into cultivation (a waste); to include; to annex.
c1539 in G. J. Aungier Syon Mon. (1840) 131 To dyche in and take in our comyn.
1633 G. Herbert Sunday in Temple vi, Christ hath took in this piece of ground, And made a garden there.
1697 in J. A. Picton City of Liverpool: Select. Munic. Rec. (1883) I. 288 Others have a design to take in some Commons near Mosse Lake.
1845 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 6 ii. 301 Numerous waste patches along the sides of wide roads have been taken in.
1893 Nat. Observ. 5 Aug. 290/2 France is determined to take in all Siam.
1897 D. Sladen in Windsor Mag. Jan. 278/1 A new alcove [has been] formed by taking in one of the‥landings.
11. To admit into a number or list; to include, comprise, embrace; spec. to include in the consideration, take into account (quot. 1752); to include in a journey or visit; loosely, to go to.
1647 H. Hammond Of Power of Keyes iii. 23 He‥hath taken in all the antient Church-writers into his catalogue.
1697 K. Chetwood Life Virgil in Dryden tr. Virgil Wks. sig. *2, Virgil was a great Mathematician, which, in the Sense of those times, took in Astrology.
1752 D. Hume Ess. & Treat. (1777) I. 106 In the former case, many circumstances must be taken in.
1755 in Essex Inst. Hist. Coll. (1916) LII. 80 In our way by the Skuylkill rd. took in ye prop[rieto]rs Gardens.
1870 E. A. Freeman Hist. Norman Conquest (ed. 2) I. App. 712 Writers who‥did not understand that his jurisdiction took in Kent.
1879 J. Lubbock Addr. Polit. & Educ. iii. 55 Attention will be concentrated on the four subjects taken in.
1880 ‘M. Twain’ Tramp Abroad iii. 42 An owl that come from Nova Scotia‥took this thing in on his way back.
1883 E. M. Bacon Dict. Boston, Mass. 359 The out-of-towner who fails to take-in a trip to Taft's.
1925 New Yorker 7 Mar. 19/1 There's no use me asking you if you took in all the revues.
1940 ‘N. Shute’ Landfall 26 He might pick up Matheson or Hooper and take in a movie.
1968 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 17 Feb. 32 (advt.) Even take in breakfast at Le Drugstore‥and head home again on the return flight.
1977 D. Bagley Enemy i. 12 We took in more theatres, an opera, a couple of ballets.
12. To receive into or grasp with the mind; to apprehend, comprehend, understand, realize; to absorb or imbibe mentally, to learn; to conceive.
a1676 M. Hale Primitive Originat. Mankind (1677) i. i. 12 A created Understanding can never take in the fulness of the Divine Excellencies.
1685 R. Baxter Paraphr. New Test. Matt. xiii. 18–19 By not understanding is meant also, Not considering it to take it in.
1711 R. Steele Spectator No. 79. ⁋5 There is no end of Affection taken in at the Eyes only.
1810 Lady Granville Lett. (1894) I. 16 She plays‥on the pianoforte, and takes in science kindly from Mr. Smart.
1877 E. A. Freeman Hist. Norman Conquest (ed. 3) I. App. 731 Writers who do not take in the position of an Earl of the West-Saxons.
1887 S. Baring-Gould Gaverocks III. li. 140 Sluggish minds‥require time to take in new notions.
13. To comprehend in one view (physical or mental); to perceive at a glance.
1728 E. Chambers Cycl. at Eye, The eye is placed chiefly to look forwards; but withal so order'd, as to take in nearly the Hemisphere before it.
1800–24 T. Campbell View from St. Leonard's 18 The eagle's vision cannot take it in.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 15 583/2 We‥turned our heads from side to side,‥the better to take in the full force of the effect.
14. To believe or accept unquestioningly.
1864 Spectator No. 1875. 640 The Undergraduates took it all in and cheered Lord Robert Cecil as their future representative.
1888 B. L. Farjeon Miser Farebrother II. xiii. 169 Jeremiah listened and took it all in.
15. To deceive, cheat, trick, impose upon. colloq.
1740 tr. C. de F. de Mouhy Fortunate Country Maid I. 130 The Griparts were never taken in yet, and what's more, never will.
1745 H. Fielding True Patriot 31 Dec. 1/3 They are fairly taken in, and imposed upon to believe we have‥as much Money as ever.
1754 E. Moor in World No. 96 III. 234, I am almost of opinion that (in the fashionable phrase) he is ‘taking me in’.
1809 ‘D. Knickerbocker’ Hist. N.Y. (1849) v. iv. 277 A contest of skill between two powers, which shall overreach and take in the other.
1843 W. S. Landor Imaginary Conversat. in Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. Feb. 209 Nobody shall ever take me in again to do such an absurd and wicked thing.
1885 Law Rep.: Chancery Div. 29 473 The Plaintiff has‥been taken in and misled.
16. To offer (a subject) for examination.
a1890 H. P. Liddon et al. Life Pusey (1893) I. 20 The poets and historians who, at that time, were taken in by candidates for Classical Honours at Oxford.
17. Stock Exchange. To receive contango on (stocks or shares); to accept (stocks, etc.) as security for a loan. Cf. to give on 2 at give v. Phrasal verbs 1.
1893 R. Bithell Counting-house Dict. (ed. 2) 292 The term [taken in stock] is applied solely to stocks taken in for fortnightly or monthly loans on the Stock Exchange.
1911 W. Thomson Dict. Banking 503/1 In connection with the Stock Exchange settlements, a ‘taker-in’ is a broker who lends money against stock (i.e. ‘takes in’ stock) to a broker who requires to pay for a purchase.
1912 Q. Rev. July 102 The dealer says that he will ‘take them in’, which means that he will lend the money until the settlement following that for which the original bargain was effected.
1928 Morning Post 19 Nov. 3/3 If the other man‥prefers to take a rate of money rather than to accept the cash which delivery of the shares would produce, he will ‘take them in’—the opposite operation to ‘giving on’.
1934 F. E. Armstrong Bk. Stock Exchange vi. 108 When no ‘takers’ can be found someone has to provide the cash, and firms known as money brokers frequently agree to ‘take in’ the securities purely as a money-lending proposition.
1955 Beginners, Please (Investors' Chron.) ii. 44 In normal market conditions it is probably easier to ‘take-in’ shares, i.e., carry over a sale to the next settlement, than to ‘give on’ shares, i.e., carry over a purchase. This is because generally there are more bulls than bears. Under such conditions the ‘giver’ pays a rate of interest to the ‘taker’ for the accommodation provided.
18. slang. To take into custody, arrest. Cf. to pull in at pull v. Phrasal verbs.
1942 L. V. Berrey & M. Van den Bark Amer. Thes. Slang §500/5 Arrest‥take, take in or up.
1978 J. B. Hilton Some run Crooked xiv. 138 You can tell me now, or I'm taking you in to help.
1979 J. van de Wetering Maine Massacre iii. 26 You're not taking me in, sheriff.
†19. To go in, ‘put in’, enter. Obs.
1655 H. L'Estrange Reign King Charles 88 Taking in at a Cooks shop where he supt.
1677 Johnson in Ray's Corr. (1848) 127 Great shoals of salmon, which often take in at the mouths of our rivers.
†20. take in with: to take part with, side with, agree with. Obs.
1597 Bacon Ess. f. 11v, It is commonly seene that men once placed, take in with the contrarie faction to that by which they enter.
1646 Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1686) i. vii. 20 Justinian took in with Hippocrates and reversed the decree.
1647 N. Bacon Hist. Disc. Govt. 83 Kings doubting to loose their game, tooke in with the weaker.
a1734 R. North Lives of Norths (1826) I. 3 If he had acted in these mens measures, and betraying his master, took in with them.
21. N. Amer. dial. To open, begin, esp. of a school term. Cf. to take up 18a at Phrasal verbs 1.
1876 ‘M. Twain’ Adventures Tom Sawyer xx. 162 She could hardly wait for school to ‘take in’.
1906 Dial. Notes 3 160 School takes in early and takes out late, seems to me.
1942 Post (Morgantown, W. Va.) 14 Sept. 4 An obligation‥upon drivers to be careful of children, esp. in the hours that school takes in and lets out.
1956 W. R. Bird Off-trail in Nova Scotia iii. 99 One girl turned to me and declared she had seen him with it before school took in.
to take off
I. transitive senses.
a. To remove from the position or condition of being on (with various shades of meaning); to lift off, pull off, cut off, rub off, detach, subtract, deduct: see simple senses and off adv.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 14318 He bad‥Of þe tumb tak of þe lidd.
1495 Ledger-bk. A. Halyburton 40 Som of that sek, the bat of-tan is 17li. 15s. 2.
?1560 H. Rhodes Bk. Nurture (new ed.) sig. Aiiv, With your trenchour knife take of suche fragmentes.
1644 J. Winthrop Hist. New Eng. (1825) II. 199 He took off all her commodities, but not at so good rates as they expected.
1682 Art & Myst. of Vintners 50 Take off the skim, and beat it together with 6 Eggs.
1709 R. Steele Tatler No. 5. ⁋8 A Cannon Ball took off his Head.
1780 W. Coxe Acct. Russ. Discov. 267 M. Engel‥takes off twenty-nine degrees from the longitude of Kamtchatka, as laid down by the Russians.
1852 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 13 i. 80 Repeated crops of hay are taken off without any return.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. Isn't his name on the list? No, it has been taken off.
b. spec. To remove from the person, divest oneself, or another, of, doff (a garment, etc.).
a1300 Cursor M. 9070 (Cott.) , ‘Tas of’, he said, ‘mi kinges croun.’
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 8116 Wiþ þis þe king tok of his gloue.
1485 Caxton tr. Charles the Grete (1881) 212 He‥took of hys clothes.
1548 Hall's Vnion: Edward IV f. ccxxxiiii, He toke of hys cappe, and made a low and solempne obeysance.
1662 J. Davies tr. A. Olearius Voy. & Trav. Ambassadors 140 A little Cap like a Callotte‥they never take off.
1736 T. Lediard Life Marlborough III. 422 The Armour was taken off.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Aug. 465/1 She took off her shawl.
1891 Murray's Mag. Apr. 531 He never takes off his boots and spurs.
c. To remove or convey (a person) from on shore, from a rock, or from on board ship.
1883 R. Buchanan Love me for Ever v. ii. 261 He had arranged‥to be taken off one night, and to sail with them right away.
1889 Eng. Illustr. Mag. Dec. 267, I might be able to support life on board of her until the Ruby took me off.
1890 Standard 12 Dec. 5/7 The passengers were taken off and landed safely.
d. absol. To clear the table after a meal: = to take away at Phrasal verbs 1.
1828 J. T. Smith Nollekens I. 91 Nor do I think wine was even mentioned until the servants were ordered to ‘take off’.
e. intr. for pass.: see sense 58f.
f. trans. U.S. Black English. To rob or burgle; to ‘hold up’. Cf. to rip off at rip v.1 Phrasal verbs 1.
1970 C. Major Dict. Afro-Amer. Slang 113 Take off,‥to rob or hurt.
1972 J. Hudson in T. Kochman Rappin' & Stylin' Out 413, I can't go no place expecting to take off some fat sucker if I look like a greaseball.
1973 Black World Jan. 56/1 He and Cecil B were to take off a supermarket in San Jose.
2. To drink to the bottom, or at one draught; to drink off, ‘toss off’.
1613 S. Purchas Pilgrimage iii. xv. 271 She dranke to him a cup of poysoned liquor: and hauing taken off almost halfe, she reached him the rest.
1662 J. Davies tr. A. Olearius Voy. & Trav. Ambassadors 83 Many Muscovian women took off their Cups as smartly as they [their husbands] did.
1724 A. Ramsay O steer her Up ii, See that shining glass of claret‥Take it aff, and let's have mair o't.
1850 N. Hawthorne Scarlet Let. iv. 87 And, that thou mayest live, take off this draught.
3. To lead away summarily; refl. to go away, take one's departure, be off.
1836 Dickens Pickwick Papers (1837) ii. 7 Here, No. 924, take your fare, and take yourself off.
1838 Dickens Oliver Twist II. xxiv. 68 He‥took himself off on tiptoe.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Oct. 609/1 The guilty parties had taken themselves off.
1894 C. H. H. Parry Stud. Great Composers: Schubert 230 In dread of being taken off as a soldier.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. He was arrested and taken off to prison. The child was taken off to bed.
4. To lead away or draw off (in fig. sense); to divert, distract, dissuade; †to free, rid (const. from); †to remove the opposition of by bribery or corruption, to buy off (obs.).
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) ii. iii. 32 It makes him, and it marres him; it sets him on, and it takes him off.
a1626 Bacon New Atlantis (1900) 24 And hee‥in great Courtesie tooke us off, and descended to aske us Questions of our Voyage and Fortunes.
1670 H. Stubbe Plus Ultra 11 This Philosophy‥taking us off from the Pedantism of Philology.
1701 tr. J. Le Clerc Lives Primitive Fathers 27 Having not undertaken to take them off from this Opinion.
a1704 Compl. Servant-maid (ed. 7) 58 You must endeavour to take off your Mistress from all the care you can.
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 268 The chief men that promoted this were taken off, (as the word then was for corrupting members).
1890 G. M. Fenn Double Knot vii, The conversation took off his attention.
5. To remove or withdraw from office, or from some position or relation; to dismiss; to withdraw (a coach, train, etc.) from running. Also in Cricket, to remove (a bowler) after a spell of bowling in order to replace him.
1745 Ward in Lett. Lit. Men (Camden) 369 Whom the Emperor had appointed governour‥but afterwards‥designed to have taken him off.
1768 J. Byron Narr. Patagonia 189 The centinel was taken off, and we were allowed to look about us a little.
1851 W. Bolland Cricket Notes iv. 75 Do not‥refuse to bowl any more; neither grumble nor growl if you are taken off.
1858 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 19 i. 144 My early calves‥I allow to suck the cows for a fortnight, then take them off.
1892 Field 28 May 779/3 The coaches‥will be taken off for one or more days.
a1910 Mod., Several trains will be taken off on Bank Holiday.
1921 G. R. C. Harris Few Short Runs xi. 280 Don't turn sulky because after bowling five consecutive maidens you are taken off.
1977 Times 17 Jan. 7/1 When Greig took him off after 95 minutes his figures for the morning were 10-5-7-1.
6. To remove by death, put to death, kill, ‘carry off’, cut off: said of a person (esp. an assassin), of disease, devouring animals, etc.
1609 Shakespeare Pericles xv. 14 To take off by treasons knife.
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) i. vii. 20 His Vertues Will pleade like Angels, Trumpet-tongu'd against The deepe damnation of his taking off.
1619 E. M. Bolton tr. Florus Rom. Hist. 336 Himselfe taken off by sudden death.
1684 Bp. G. Burnet in tr. T. More Utopia Pref. sig. A7, The hiring of Assassinates to take off Enemies.
1701 W. Wotton Hist. Rome: Alexander ii. 487 Diseases‥took off very many of them.
1770 J. Langhorne & W. Langhorne tr. Plutarch Lives (1879) II. 828/2 Ptolemy of Cyprus‥took himself off by poison.
1832 Examiner 6/2 Up to the 20th of November about thirty people had been taken off by cholera.
1840 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 1 iii. 258 The mangold~wurzel was‥taken off early by the fly.
7. To remove (something imposed), esp. so as to relieve those subject to it.
1597 Shakespeare Richard II iii. iii. 134 Oh God oh God that ere this tongue of mine That laid the sentence‥should take it off againe.
1660 N. Ingelo Bentivolio & Urania (1682) ii. 147 You think to take off this Inconvenience.
1726 ‘ Philalethes’ in J. Ker Mem. p. iii, If he would agree to the taking off the Penal Laws.
1737 Gentleman's Mag. Mar. 172/1 To give immediate Ease to his Majesty's Subjects, by taking off some of the Taxes which are most burthensome to the Poor.
1840 Penny Cycl. XVII. 399/2 The ecclesiastical courts may‥take off the penance.
1879 M. J. Guest Lect. Hist. Eng. xiv. 127 He pleased the people greatly by taking off a heavy tax.
1889 ‘M. Gray’ Reproach of Annesley iii. ii, The three months' embargo was now taken off.
a. To remove or do away with (a quality, condition, etc.).
a1616 Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) v. xi. 37 Who‥by selfe and violent hands, Tooke off her life.
a1616 Shakespeare Cymbeline (1623) v. ii. 2 The heauinesse and guilt within my bosome, Takes off my manhood.
1652 J. French York-shire Spaw x. 90 They‥should take the water a little warm'd first‥the cold being just taken off.
1691 H. Consett Pract. Spiritual Courts (1700) To Rdr., Which thing‥may‥take off the Edge of Detraction.
1737 H. Bracken Farriery Improved xxvi. 387 One or two Purges will take off the Running at his Mouth.
1885 E. Lynn Linton Autobiogr. Christopher Kirkland II. vi. 189 The smartest and prettiest kind of cap‥took off the severity of her smoothly braided hair.
†b. To do away with, disprove, confute. Obs.
1629 W. Prynne Church of Englands Old Antithesis 95, I must needs take off one principall daring obiection.
1682 T. Creech tr. Lucretius De Natura Rerum (Notes) 22 After that I shall take off his exceptions against Providence.
1695 J. Edwards Disc. conc. Old & New-Test. III. xii. 478 To take off this seeming Argument.
a. To make or obtain (an impression) from something; to print off. In quot. 1660, to receive as an impression (in fig. sense).
1660 tr. M. Amyraut Treat. conc. Relig. iii. viii. 489 Those [languages] which live‥take off better the impression and graces of the language of the Prophets.
1707 T. Hearne Remarks & Coll. 24 Jan. (O.H.S.) I. 320 The Stationers were obliged‥to take off 200 Copies of any Book.
1817 G. Rose Diaries (1860) I. 19 (note) , He had an impression of 500 taken off.
1825 New Monthly Mag. 15 234/1 The expedient‥of taking off an impression in some soft substance.
b. To make (a figure of something); transf. to draw a likeness of, to portray: = sense 33b.
1705 J. Addison Remarks Italy 321 Take off all their Models in Wood.
1835–40 T. C. Haliburton Clockmaker (1862) 306 A native artist of great promise‥that is come to take us off.
1854 Thackeray Newcomes (1855) II. vi. 64 Then Clive proposed‥to take his head off; and made an excellent likeness in chalk of his uncle.
1890 ‘R. Boldrewood’ Colonial Reformer (1891) 182 A young lady who could take off a horse like that—the dead image of him—could do anything.
c. To measure off; to determine or mark the position of: cf. sense 32c.
1793 J. Smeaton Narr. Edystone Lighthouse (ed. 2) §97 In this way I took off 35‥of the most remarkable points,‥These 35 primary points having been determined as above.
10. To imitate or counterfeit, esp. by way of mockery; to mimic, caricature, burlesque, parody; to make a mock of. colloq.
1750 Ld. Chesterfield Lett. (1792) III. 85 He has since been taken off by a thousand authors: but never really imitated by any one.
1768 H. Brooke Fool of Quality III. xvi. 239 He so perfectly counterfeited, or took off, as they call it, the real Christian, that many looked to see him‥taken alive into heaven.
1789 H. L. Thrale Observ. Journey France I. 240 At the hazard of being taken off and held up for a laughing-stock.
1809 B. H. Malkin tr. A. R. Le Sage Adventures Gil Blas I. ii. vii. 281, I can take off a cat to the life: suppose I was to mew a certain number of times?
1826 T. Hood Faithless Nelly Gray in Whims & Oddities 140 She made him quite a scoff; And when she saw his wooden legs, Began to take them off!
1879 W. Minto Defoe 40 One of the pamphlets which he professed to take off in his famous squib.
11. absol. with from: To detract from, diminish, lessen: = 58e.
1701 W. Wotton Hist. Rome 264 This gradual Advancement took off from the Obscurity of his Birth.
1753 E. Chambers Cycl. Suppl. s.v. Sal, A defect or flaw, which took off very much from the value of the gem.
1773 J. Richardson tr. Wieland Agathon Pref. 14 There are many allusions in it to modern customs‥ which take off in a great measure from the antique cast.
12. To close the stitches in knitting; to knit off. Also absol.
1849 E. Copley Compr. Knitting-bk. 12 By reversing the right hand pin, so inserting it in two stitches, not in front but at the back of the left hand pin, and knitting them off as one. This [way of reducing the number of stitches] is called ‘taking off at the back’.
13. To abate, grow less, decrease; (of rain) to cease.
1776 Cook in Philos. Trans. (Royal Soc.) 66 447, I judged it was about high water, and that the tides were taking off, or decreasing.
1854 H. Miller Schools & Schoolmasters (1858) xxi. 463 No sooner had it [the hurricane] begun to take off than I set out for the scene of its ravages.
1878 R. L. Stevenson Inland Voy. 20 The rain took off near Laeken.
1899 F. T. Bullen Log of Sea-waif 93 The breeze now began to take off a bit, and more sail was made.
a. To go off, start off, run away; to branch off from a main stream. (Cf. 63a, 63b.)
c1813 M. M. Sherwood Stories Ch. Catech. xiii. (1873) 112 Dick ran out‥and took off into the great bazar.
1825 C. Waterton Wanderings in S. Amer. iii. iv. 265 The Indian took off into the woods.
1888 19th Cent. Jan. 44 The second [headwater of the Hugli] takes off from the Ganges about forty miles eastward from the Bhagirathi.
1959 I. Opie & P. Opie Lore & Lang. Schoolchildren x. 193 Juvenile language is well stocked‥with expressions inviting a person's departure, for instance:‥take off, [etc.].
1968 Listener 19 Dec. 809/3 I'm not stopping here,‥no matter what they say or do.‥ I'm taking off tonight.
1972 J. Philips Vanishing Senator (1973) iii. iii. 147 You'd better take off. I've just got to get some sleep.
1978 M. Duffy Housespy vii. 178 Danny Oldfield's taken off. I'll let you know when I find her.
b. To start in leaping; to commence a leap. (Opp. to land v. 8b.)
1814 Sporting Mag. 43 287 The spot where the horse took off to where he landed, is above eighteen feet.
1889 Boy's Own Paper 7 Sept. 780/3 Competitors should be encouraged to take-off with accuracy.
1892 Strand Mag. 3 633/2 The last attitude one would imagine a horse to adopt in ‘taking off’ for a jump.
c. Croquet. To make a stroke from contact with another ball so as to send one's own ball nearly or quite in the direction in which the mallet is aimed: cf. take-off n. 4.
1872 R. C. A. Prior Notes on Croquet 48 It were an improvement‥to tether a ball in the centre of the ground, which at starting should be hit by the players from a spot in the middle of the left-hand boundary. Taking off from this tethered ball, they might go to any part of the lawn.
d. Aeronaut. Of a pilot, plane, etc.: to perform the operations involved in beginning flight; to become air-borne. Also transf. of a bird.
?1849 G. Cayley Let. in C. H. Gibbs-Smith Sir George Cayley's Aeronautics (1962) xlii. 136 It is absolutely necessary that the tail be securely braced up a little, and that the centre of gravity be made to act steadily on the bulk of the surfaces so that when weighed up to the weight of the person trying the wings—should it take off, they would skim and not either rise up hill or sink down hill.
1918 Punch 3 Apr. 222/2 Yes, he crashed a few days ago—in his first solo flip, taking off.
1927 C. A. Lindbergh We ii. 19, I taxied to one end of the field, opened the throttle and started to take off.
1936 G. B. Shaw Simpleton ii. 69 All I want is a parapet to take off from.
1951 A. C. Clarke Sands of Mars i. 1, I once took-off standing up, just for a bet.
1973 Sci. Amer. Dec. 102/1 If the birds are pursued, they take off, but they do not fly far before they land again.
e. fig. Of prices, costs, etc.: to rise steeply or suddenly. Of a scheme, project, etc.: to be launched (successfully), to become popular.
1963 J. N. Harris Weird World Wes Beattie (1964) xv. 184 Minerva took off, as we say, on a famous Friday the thirteenth.‥ The stock rose from nineteen cents to over a dollar in the last half-hour of trading.
1970 Melody Maker 12 Sept. 33/3, I shall be pretty sick if Andy Williams' record takes off and mine dies.
1971 Physics Bull. Oct. 590/2 Prof. E. C. Cherry‥devised an arrangement which resulted in reduction in bandwidth requirements.‥ This likewise has not taken off so far although much more interest is now being shown in it.
1976 Physics Bull. Sept. 401/1 Production and salary costs ‘took off’.
1978 Detroit Free Press 5 Mar. b 12/2 They had best seller hopes for the book, but it hasn't really taken off.
1981 Church Times 10 Apr. 9/5 Frank Scuffham has hopes of his committee, but acknowledges that it has not taken off yet.
1983 Times 20 Jan. 15/3 Sales of existing properties have taken off during the last few months.
15. U.S. dial. To absent oneself from work, school, etc.
1930 W. Faulkner As I lay Dying 118 You take off and stay in the house today.
1936 W. Greene Death in Deep South (1937) 61 She thought she'd be off in the afternoon and she said she'd take off anyway if she wasn't.
to take on
I. transitive senses.
a. See simple senses and on adv. in quot. 1877, to take on board (opp. to to take off at Phrasal verbs 1).
c1579 A. Montgomerie Misc. Poems xlviii. 140 Tak on ȝour babert luif abuird.
1839 A. Ure Dict. Arts 258 (Cards, Playing) The ink or colour‥is‥laid on the types and blocks‥and the impressions [are] taken-on to thick drawing paper by means of a suitable press.
1877 Scribner's Monthly 15 14/1 He took on the passengers who stood clustered on the wharf.
b. †To put on, don (clothing, etc.) obs.; to ‘put on’ or add (flesh, etc.): see to put on 6a at put v. Phrasal verbs 1.
1389 in T. Smith & L. T. Smith Eng. Gilds (1870) 56 Þe den xal warn alle þe gylde breþeren þt be in toune, for to takyn on here hodis‥and comen to messe.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xxiii. 494 Thenne they went, & toke on the beste clothyng that they had.
1583 Life Bp. St. Androis in J. Cranstoun Satirical Poems Reformation (1891) I. 389 On a gray bonnet he tackis.
1847 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 8 ii. 392 Sheep‥thrive very well and take on flesh rapidly.
1850 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 11 ii. 600 The animal being thus gradually prepared to take on that increased amount of muscle and fat.
†c. To take up (arms); to arm oneself: see to take together 1 at Phrasal verbs 1. Sc. Obs.
1565 Reg. Privy Council Scotl. I. 355 Thair rebellis ar planelie conspyrit togidder, takin on arms.
1567 Reg. Privy Council Scotl. I. 524 Thai have takin on armes to puneis the authouris of the said cruell murthour.
a. To assume, ‘put on’ (a form, quality, etc.) = sense 16a: to assume, begin to perform (an action or function) (cf. 17); to contract, begin to be affected by, ‘catch’ (cf. 44b, 44c).
1799 Kentish in T. Beddoes Contrib. Physical & Med. Knowl. 258 He took on that peevish irratibility [sic] so unhappy for the individual.
1842 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 3 ii. 331 The blanched leaves soon take on the appearance of frost-bitten celery.
1869 G. Lawson Dis. Eye (1874) 41 The ulcer‥took on a healing action, and soon cicatrized.
1893 ‘M. Gray’ Last Sentence iii. v, The deep, mysterious eyes would take on a deeper charm.
b. To adopt (an idea, etc.); to accept mentally.
1890 Pict. World 4 Sept. 298/2 That belonged to the days before its author ‘took on religion’, as the Methodists term it.
1893 Nat. Observ. 23 Sept. 472/2 He is prepared to throw over all his convictions pretty much as he took them on.
c. To apprehend with the senses; to perceive, ‘catch’. rare.
1827 D. Johnson Indian Field Sports 45, I have heard the natives assert that they take on the scent of the deer many hours after they have passed.
3. To take (a person) into one's employment, or upon one's staff, to engage (also fig.); to accept in marriage; to receive into fellowship.
1611 G. Blundell in Buccleuch MSS (Hist. MSS Comm.) (1899) I. 97 If Holland take any companies on.
1633 P. Massinger New Way to pay Old Debts ii. iii. sig. E4, I'le not giue her the aduantage,‥To‥say she was forc'd To buy my wedding clothes, and tooke me on With a plaine Riding-suite, and an ambling Nagge.
1826 Examiner 631/1 The large manufacturers are about taking on a considerable number of hands.
1893 J. B. Thompson in Chicago Advance 20 July, A number of catechumens were taken on during the year.
a. To undertake; to begin to handle or deal with, to ‘tackle’.
[c1325 Spec. Gy Warw. 267 Allas! what sholen hij onne take, Þat wolden here her god forsake Þurw sinne of fleschly liking?]
[implied in: tr. Secreta Secret., Priv. Priv. 180 That tokenyth hardynesse of herte, grete takynge on, and stowtesse. [at taking on n. at taking n. Compounds 1]
1898 Daily News 10 Mar. 7/1 We cannot take on both jobs.
1900 Sir R. Buller in Daily News 12 Nov. 3/4, I had taken on a task, and I was bound to see it through.
b. To engage (someone) in a fight, contest, argument, etc.
1885 Graphic 3 Jan. 11/3 He‥so frightened the other‥cowards that‥they did not care to ‘take him on’.
1915 E. Corri Thirty Years Boxing Referee 150 Instead of going for what the boxers call the ‘easy money’, Basham took on Matt Wells.
1928 Daily Tel. 24 Apr. 12/6, I saw the Sopwith take him on, and whilst I was changing drums I was attacked again in front by a Roland.
1930 G. B. Shaw Apple Cart i. 26 In this conflict we are the challengers. You have the choice of weapons. If you choose scandal, we'll take you on at that.
1976 Morecambe Guardian 7 Dec. 8/3 Micky Taylor earned the spotlight with a brilliant, cheeky dribble in which he took on and beat four men.
5. To undertake the management of (a farm, etc.), esp. in succession or continuance.
1861 Temple Bar 3 474 When I was twenty-two, my father died, and I took on the farm.
1889 A. V. Carr Margaret Maliphant II. xix. 70, I want him to take on another small farm.
1892 Cornhill Mag. Oct. 346 It will be quite impossible for me to take on the lease again.
6. †(a) To assert, asseverate (cf. 17c). Obs. rare. (b) To pretend, affect.
1858 Dickens House to Let: Going into Society in Househ. Words Extra Christmas No., 7 Dec. 20/1 This gent took on not to know me.
1583 P. Stubbes Second Pt. Anat. Abuses sig. E1v, Yet will they sweare, protest, and take on woonderfully, that it is very new, fresh, and tender.
1583 P. Stubbes Second Pt. Anat. Abuses sig. G6, If they sell you a cow,‥they‥will protest and take on woonderfullie, that hee is but this olde, and that olde.
7. To buy on credit. Sc.
1808 J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang., To tak on, to buy on credit, to buy to accompt.
1866 J. H. Wilson Our Father in Heaven (1869) 180, I have heard of young people‥going to shops and ‘taking on’ things, as it is called.
†8. To begin, commence (with inf., or intr.); = sense 62. Obs.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 11260 Ȝiff þu takesst onn att an. & tellesst forþ till fowwre.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 2553 Ȝho toc onn full aldeliȝ. To fraȝȝnenn godess enngell.
II. intransitive senses.
†9. To act, proceed, behave, ‘go on’. Const. dative, to a person. Obs.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 15784 Whæt Penda king hafueð iseid. and hu he wulle taken on.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 5074 Þa þis wes al idon. þa token [c1300 Otho tocken] heo oðer weise on.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 2789 Þat word com to Belinne‥heo he hauede itaken on.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1963) l. 1665 Ȝef ferrene kinges hiherde þa tidinde. þe we swa takede [c1300 Otho take] him on.
c1305 Pilate 149 in Early Eng. Poems & Lives Saints (1862) 115 Ou liþere man,‥haþ he itake on so, Assentede he to þe gywes?
c1390 (1376) Langland Piers Plowman (Vernon) (1867) A. iii. 76 For toke þei on trewely þei timbrede not so hye.
a1450 (1410) H. Lovelich Hist. Holy Grail lvi. l. 505 And thus these lyowns Gonnen On to take Til the tyme that Cam Lawncelot de lake.
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 15314 On alle wissen he toc [c1300 Otho tok] him on swulc he weore a chepmon.
10. To ‘go on’ madly or excitedly; to rage, rave; to be greatly agitated; to make a great fuss, outcry, or uproar; now esp. to distress oneself greatly. Now colloq. and dial.
c1430 Syr Gener. (Roxb.) 5200 That yondre knight on the white stede Taketh on as a deuel in dede.
1472 J. Paston in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) I. 582 My modyr wepyth and takyth on meruaylously.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 750/1, I take on lyke a madde man, je menraige.
1535 Bible (Coverdale) Num. xiv. A, Then the whole congregacion toke on, and cryed, and the people wepte [cōgregacion in text].
1600 P. Holland tr. Livy Rom. Hist. ii. xxvii. 61 All this while Appius raged and tooke on, inveying bitterly against the nicetie and popularitie of his brother Consul.
1668 S. Pepys Diary 8 Apr. (1976) IX. 157 Her mother and friends take on mightily.
1767 Woman of Fashion I. 157 You'll make me cry too, if you take on in this Manner.
1830 J. Galt Lawrie Todd I. i. ix. 68 He took on like a demented man.
1852 Thackeray Henry Esmond II. i. 11 She took on sadly about her husband.
11. To assume airs; to behave proudly or haughtily; to presume; to take liberties. (Cf. 18e.)
1668 R. Steele Husbandmans Calling (1678) vi. 143 If a worm should take on, lift up itself, and be proud, then anything may be proud.
1851 Beck's Florist 180 ‘Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall’. I began to take on; and if the squire gave me any orders, I did not take 'em as I ought to have done.
a. To take service or employment, to engage oneself; to enlist.
c1650 J. Spalding Memorialls Trubles Scotl. & Eng. (1851) II. 335 Diuerss daylie took on [to serve in the army].
1750 T. Smollett Roderick Random (ed. 3) I. xvi. 108 If you take on to be a soldier.
a1777 S. Foote Trip to Calais (1778) iii. 88, I am engaged to take on with Miss Lydy.
1890 Lippincott's Monthly Mag. Mar. 336 At the end of their term of enlistment [they] would refuse to ‘take on’ again in D Troop.
1892 Field 7 May 698/3 ‘Then’, replied one of the men, ‘I will take on at 4s.’
b. With with: to engage oneself to; to begin to associate with, to consort with; = take up with at Phrasal verbs 1; to adopt as a practice, etc.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. i. 51 Such a Drake has been more used to a Hen when he was young, and‥will the sooner take on with her when he grows older.
1844 Fraser's Mag. 30 104/1 The misthress is going to take on with Mister Jowles the praacher.
1886 ‘M. Gray’ Silence of Dean Maitland i, I liked Charlie Judkins well enough before he took on with this love-nonsense.
1894 G. Moore Esther Waters 154 His young woman must be sadly in want of a sweetheart to take on with one such as him.
13. To ‘catch on’, become popular: = sense 10c. colloq.
1897 ‘Ouida’ Massarenes xvii, He saw how greatly these musical entertainments ‘took on’.
to take out
a. To remove from within a place, receptacle, or enclosure; to extract, withdraw, draw forth: see simple senses and out adv.
13.. Cursor M. (Gött.) 20564, I toke þaim vte on [v.r. with] mi right hand.
1382 Wyclif Psalms lxviii. 15 [lxix. 14] Tac me out fro clei, that I be not inficchid.
a1500 (1450) Merlin (1899) i. 1 Whan that oure lorde‥had take oute Adam and Eve, and other [from hell].
1600 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 2 iv. iii. 334 Their stings and teeth newly tane out.
1711 J. Addison Spectator No. 94. ¶9 He had only dipped his Head into the Water, and immediately taken it out again.
1889 F. M. Crawford Greifenstein II. xx. 280 Rex took out his purse and gave him a gold piece.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. I asked for the book at the library, but it had been taken out the day before.
b. To remove, extract (a stain, etc.).
1728 J. Gay Beggar's Opera i. ix. 12 Money‥is the true Fuller's Earth for Reputations, there is not a Spot or a Stain but what it can take out.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. Ammonia will take out the grease-spots.
c. intr. for pass. See sense 58f.
2. trans. To withdraw from a number or set (actually or mentally); to leave out, except, omit.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 8601 Þatt ȝer þatt he wass takenn ut. Þurrh drihhtin godd fra manne.
c1315 Shoreham Poems i. 552 Þaȝ he ne toke iudas out, Þe worste man on erþe.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. There are 91 festivals in the Prayer Book Calendar; but if you take out those that have no special Collects, there are only 24.
a. To lead or carry out or forth: with various special implications, as: to lead (a partner) out from the company for a dance; to summon (an opponent) to a duel, to ‘call out’; to lead (a person or animal) into the open air for exercise; to lead (a woman) in (to a formal dinner), etc. Cf. sense to take back 2 at Phrasal verbs 1 (e), to take in 5 at Phrasal verbs 1.
1623 Shakespeare & J. Fletcher Henry VIII i. iv. 98, I were vnmannerly to take you out, And not to kisse you.
1665 S. Pepys Diary 13 Apr. (1972) VI. 79 When the company begin to dance, I came away, lest I should be taken out.
1749 H. Fielding Tom Jones III. vii. xiii. 113 When a Matter can't be made up, as in Case of a Blow, the sooner you take him out the better.
1811 J. Austen Let. 29 May (1995) 187 Mrs Welby takes her out airing in her Barouche.
1876 Trollope Prime Minister III. x. 166 John Fletcher took her out to dinner and Arthur did not sit near her.
1877 Scribner's Monthly 15 65/1 He had even promised to take her out on the ice.
1880 Trollope Duke's Children ii. xx. 240 It was of course contrived at dinner that Lord Popplecourt should take out Lady Mary.
1893 J. Ashby-Sterry Naughty Girl ii, It was awfully good of you to take the children out, Charlie.
1905 J. H. Choate Let. 27 Jan. in E. S. Martin Life J. H. Choate (1920) II. viii. 272 The King took Mama out to dinner.
a1910 Mod., Take the dog out for a run.
1913 in C. Seymour Intimate Papers Col. House (1926) I. vii. 188 He considered taking a duchess or royalty out to dinner was hard sledding.
b. Cricket. to take out one's bat : said of a batsman who is ‘not out’ at the end of the innings.
1890 Standard 9 May 3/8 He was batting nearly four hours and eventually took out his bat for 90.
1892 Sat. Rev. 16 July 63/2 The captain‥took out his bat for 60.
†4. trans. (a) To give vent to, utter. (b) To announce, give out (a text). Obs.
1678 Dryden All for Love Pref. sig. b3v, He took out his laughter which he had stiffled.
1697 G. Burghope Disc. Relig. Assemblies 6 They will take care to come before the text is taken out.
a. To make a copy from an original; to copy (a writing, design, etc.); esp. to extract a passage from a writing or book.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 750/1, I take out a writyng, I coppy a mater of a boke, je copie.
1573 Art of Limming 11 A pretie deuise to take out the true forme & proporcion of any letter, knott, flower, Image, or other worke.
a1616 Shakespeare Othello (1622) iii. iii. 300, I am glad I haue found this napkin,‥I'le ha the worke taine out.
a1616 Shakespeare Othello (1622) iii. iv. 177 Take me this worke out‥I'de haue it coppied.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. To read a book and take out quotations for the dictionary.
b. To extract from data.
1881 Times 10 Nov. 4/2 The surveyor employed‥to take out the quantities on the architect's plan—that is, to estimate the quantities of materials and labour which will be required to carry out the proposed plans.
1896 Daily News 5 Aug. 9/5 The plans of the buildings‥will be now submitted to the quantity surveyor, with a view to the quantities being taken out.
†6. trans. To learn (a lesson); transf. to teach. (See also to take down 3 at Phrasal verbs 1) Obs.
a1591 H. Smith Wks. (1866) I. 499 If we be negligent and slack, and never take out his lessons, but s and at a stay.
1629 J. Earle Micro-cosmogr. (ed. 5) xxix. sig. F6v, He hath taken out as many lessons of the world, as dayes.
1642 Strangling Great Turk in Harl. Misc. (1745) IV. 37 The Discipline of War must take you out other Lessons of Fury.
7. trans. To apply for and obtain (a licence, patent, summons, or other official document) in due form from the proper authority.
1673 in O. Airy Essex Papers (1890) I. 93 Ye vacating their charter, & forcing them to take out a new one.
1687 G. Burnet Contin. Refl. Mr. Varillas's Hist. Heresies 76 The Bishops were obliged to take out new Commissions from the King‥for holding their Bishopricks.
1726 G. Berkeley Let. 27 Jan. in Wks. (1871) IV. 123, I have not yet taken out letters of administration.
1840 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 1 iii. 351 Patents have been recently taken out for supposed improvements.
1892 Sat. Rev. 30 Apr. 497/1 [He] took out a summons against him.
8. trans. To obtain or enjoy completely. ? Obs.
1631 J. Mabbe tr. F. de Rojas Spanish Bawd 217, I will goe downe and stand at the doore, that my Master may take out his full sleepe.
9. trans. To obtain, receive, use up, spend, the value of (something) in another form. Const. in.
1631 T. Heywood Fair Maid of West: 1st Pt. ii. 17 Because of the old proverbe, What they want in meate, let them take out in drinke.
1764 S. Foote Mayor of Garret i. 14 When he frequented our town of a market-day, he has taken out a guinea in oaths.
1828 Examiner 794/1 [He] has no objection, when a poor tradesman cannot advance the fee, to take it out in goods.
1891 Rev. of Reviews 15 Sept. 236/2 The prize was one guinea, which had to be taken out in books.
10. intr. To go away, make off, start out. U.S.
1855 in Montana Hist. Soc. Contrib. (1940) X. 137, I took out in order to give them the slip.
1896 ‘M. Twain’ in Harper's Mag. Aug. 355/1 Out jumps four men and took out up the road as tight as they could go.
1929 W. Faulkner Sound & Fury 310 They'll have to hitch up and take out to get home by midnight.
1938 M. K. Rawlings Yearling i. 11 How come you to take out such a fur piece?
11. trans. Bridge. To remove (one's partner) from his situation in the auction by changing the suit of the probable contract or by bidding in response to his double. Also into (the fresh suit), with bid as obj., and absol.
1917 E. Bergholt Royal Auction Bridge (1918) 88 How am I to know‥whether you are taking me out from strength or from weakness?
1921 A. E. M. Foster Auction Bridge 38 If your partner takes you out from weakness into a suit call you are likely to be fined.
1956 Mollo & Gardener Bridge for Beginners vii. 75 Responder may have a feeble five or six-card suit and nothing else. Then he takes out the double.
1977 Homes & Gardens Feb. 17 If‥you held hand II, then it would be correct to take out into Two Hearts.
1977 Homes & Gardens Feb. 14 Most players would take their partners out into Four Hearts on both of these hands.
12. trans. To kill, murder; to destroy or obliterate (a specific target). slang.
1939 R. Chandler Big Sleep ii. 26 I'll take him out.‥ He'll think a bridge fell on him.
1955 Times 28 June 4/4 The purpose of the attack was to ‘take out’—as the strategist's jargon has it— the docks.
1962 L. Deighton Ipcress File xviii. 109 In terms of destructive area, this is a bomb that would take out a whole city.
1967 J. M. Fox Dead Pigeon 170 ‘He took out two people who could have involved him’‥ ‘Took out? You mean he killed them?’
1977 Times Lit. Suppl. 15 Apr. 464/4 A sudden air attack, which would take out London, on a scale comparable with the attacks on Dresden or Hiroshima in 1945.
1978 M. Duffy Housespy v. 124 He was taken out yesterday.‥ They ran him down.
1982 Daily Tel. 14 June 4/8 For several hours, as a commanding officer and his officers tried to ‘take out’ the sniper with machine gun, rifle and artillery fire, his bullets ricochetted off rocks above our heads.
13. trans. Austral. and N.Z. colloq. To accept as a punishment, reward, etc.; to win.
1943 K. Tennant Ride on Stranger xvi. 176 George Benson told her briefly he would see her husband had a lawyer. He would probably get a month at the most and he'd better ‘take it out’.
1976 Australian 15 July 2 Helen Morse‥takes out the Australian Film Institute's top actress award tomorrow night.
1977 N.Z. Herald 8 Jan. i. 6/8 The Games we play‥can't‥end, till Someone takes them out.
to take out of
1. trans. To withdraw or remove from within (lit. and fig.); to extract (a stain) from: see simple senses and out of prep.to take the words out of one's mouth: see to take the words out of a person's mouth at mouth n. Phrases 1g.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) Ded. l. 209 To takenn ut off helle wa. Þa gode sawless alle.
a1387 J. Trevisa tr. R. Higden Polychron. (St. John's Cambr.) (1869) II. 133 While he dwellede longe in Fraunce‥Chedde was i-take out of his abbay of Lestynge.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 16442 Þe monsleer þat barabas was take out of prisoun.
1535 W. Stewart tr. H. Boethius Bk. Cron. Scotl. (Rolls) II. 660 [He] Out of the erth his deid bodie hes tone.
1659 T. Burton Diary (1828) IV. 451 Take heed you take not the thorn out of another's foot, and put it in your own wholly.
a1756 E. Haywood New Present (1771) 246 To take Ink out of Linen.
1882 M. E. Braddon Mt. Royal III. iv. 59 He took the cartridges out of the case himself.
2. trans. To get, derive, or obtain from.
1579 W. Wilkinson Confut. Familye of Loue B iv, Out of their knowledge, whiche they take out of the Scriptures.
1650 J. French tr. Paracelsus Nature of Things ii. 17 Any flint taken out of River water.
1821 Scott Kenilworth I. i. 23 There were as good spitchcock'd eels on the board as ever were ta'en out of the Isis.
3. trans. To subtract or deduct from. Now rare.
1593 T. Fale Horologiographia f. 14, I take the complement of the Elevation, which is 38d. out of the reclination of the plat which is 55d., and there remain 17d.
1679 J. Moxon Mech. Exercises I. vii. 131 A setting off of 8 Foot broad and 10 Foot long taking out of the Yard.
4. trans. To deprive a person or thing of (some quality, etc.); spec. to deprive of (energy or the like); usu. to take it out of , to exhaust, fatigue.
1847 S. Wilberforce in Life (1879) I. 402 There is so much of interest in a Confirmation, that it takes a great deal out of one.
1858 N. Hawthorne French & Ital. Note-bks. II. 68 Rome‥takes the splendor out of all this sort of thing elsewhere.
1884 H. Smart From Post to Finish xxxii, Now you say you cannot come, and all the salt is taken out of my holidays.
1890 M. Laffan Louis Draycott ii. i, The sort of day that takes it out of a man.
5. trans. To remove from the jurisdiction of; to prove not to come under (a statute).
1885 Law Rep.: Chancery Div. 29 810 The burthen of taking the case out of the Statute of Limitations rests on the Appellant.
1891 Law Times 92 105/2 All lawyers are familiar with the doctrine of part performance to take a case out of the statute.
6. trans. To take (something) from a person in compensation: to take it out of , to exact satisfaction from.
1851 H. Mayhew London Labour I. 31/2, I take it out of him on the spot. I give him a jolly good hiding.
1888 J. McCarthy & R. C. Praed Ladies' Gallery I. iv. 91 What we have to miss in sight-seeing we try to take out of the people in the cars.
1901 Scotsman 29 Nov. 8/2 In the olden days the villages ‘took it out’ of each other with club and spear.
7. trans. to take one out of oneself : to distract one's attention from one's own concerns; to amuse, divert or occupy (a person).
1848 G. E. Jewsbury Let. 4 Oct. in Sel. Lett. to J. W. Carlyle (1892) 257 There are no bothering algebraical calculations as far as I went, but glimpses, as it were, into the ‘everlasting universe of things’, till one is taken out of oneself completely.
1908 A. Bennett Old Wives' Tale iv. iv. 531 Dr. Stirling wished to practise his curative treatment of taking the sisters ‘out of themselves’.
1929 J. B. Priestley Good Compan. ii. iii. 301, I haven't enjoyed anything so much, I don't know when‥they're so good they've taken me right out of myself.
1941 A. Christie Evil under Sun xii. 218 Poirot had‥dwelt on the advantage it would be to Linda to have something to take her out of herself.
1958 P. Marris Widows & their Families ii. 21 My sister‥took me out for walks. It's wonderful how it takes you out of yourself.
1974 R. Rendell Face of Trespass ii. 26 What you need‥is some outside interest, something to take you out of yourself.
to take out on
trans. In phr. to take it out on (someone or something): to vent one's anger, frustration, etc., on an object other than the cause of it.
1840 H. Cockton Life Valentine Vox xxi. 158 P'r'aps you'd like to take it out on me, 'cos if yer would, yer know, why ony say so.
1903 ‘C. E. Merriman’ Lett. from Son vi. 72 Milligan‥came around to take your cussing of him out on me.
1926 G. Hunting Vicarion xviii. 311 Make some records of me, and take it out on them.
1947 A. Huxley Let. 9 Mar. (1969) 567 He can't associate sex with respectability, but he has to take it all out on tarts or housemaids.
1958 Daily Sketch 2 June 12/6 You may be irritable at work, but don't take it out on your colleagues.
1967 Listener 11 May 611/2 The country took out its frustrations on Congress.
1978 P. Marsh et al. Rules of Disorder ii. 39 My brother‥was a troublemaker and now they're taking it out on me.
to take over
†1. trans. = overtake v. 2. Obs.
c1330 Arth. & Merl. 7163 The paiens token ouer our men, And fast leyd upon hem then.
2. trans. To take by transfer from, or in succession to another; to assume possession or control of (something) from or after some one else. Also absol. Also to take over from : to relieve, take the place of, succeed.
1884 A. Forbes Chinese Gordon ii. 36 The army whose command he took over in its headquarters.
1887 Westall Capt. Trafalgar xiv, [He] took service with us when we took over the Eureka.
1890 ‘H. S. Merriman’ Suspense viii, Brenda took over all the smaller household duties.
1891 Law Rep.: Weekly Notes 7 Mar. 43/1 The‥company was formed‥for the purpose of taking over the business‥carried on by the plaintiff.
1916 ‘Boyd Cable’ Action Front 182 The colonel was severely wounded and had sent for the second in command to take over.
1916 ‘Boyd Cable’ Action Front 234 Riley‥explained the position to the subaltern who took over from him.
1946 D. C. Peattie Road of Naturalist i. 20 A ranker, branching dandelion took over from the desert dandelions.
1978 J. Gardner Dancing Dodo xiv. 101 Terry Makepiece was not going to take over on this. He would see it through himself.
3. trans. To carry or convey across, to transport.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. The ferry-boat will take you over.
to take to
In passive to be taken to = to be taken aback: see to take with —— at Phrasal verbs 2. dial.
1865 Mrs. H. Wood Mildred Arkell xxxii, Mr. Van Brummel, considerably taken-to at being addressed individually, lost his head completely.
1872 Argosy Sept. 183 Mr. T. might possibly have been slightly taken to‥, but there was no symptom of it in his voice. [See Eng. Dial. Dict.]
to take together
1. trans. See simple senses and together adv., prep., n., and adj.
†2. To collect: cf. to pull together 2b at pull v. Phrasal verbs. Obs.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xix. 429 But he toke togyder his strengthes, & stode vpryghte.
3. To consider or reckon together (cf. 26c), or as a whole; to reckon as a group or collection.
1678 R. Cudworth True Intellect. Syst. Universe i. iv. 258 Plato in his Cratylus taking these Two Words, Ζήνα and Διά, both together, etymologizeth them as one.
1741 S. Richardson Pamela IV. xv. 107 Numps, his Son, is a Character, take it all together, quite out of Nature and Probability.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. Taken together, there cannot be more than a dozen.
to take up
I. transitive senses
a. To lift, raise (from the ground, etc., or from a lying or prostrate position); to pick up; also, to lift or raise (something hanging down) so as to expose what is covered by it. Somewhat arch.
a1300 Cursor M. 3064 (Cott.) , Drightin has herd þi barn cri, Rise and tak it up for þi.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) John v. 9 The man is maad hool, and took vp his bed, and wandride.
c1420–30 Prymer (1895) 9 Þi riȝthond took me vp.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 278 The Garter‥which fell from her as shee daunced, and the King tooke up from the floore.
a1616 Shakespeare Taming of Shrew (1623) iii. iii. 35 The Priest let fall the booke, And as he stoop'd againe to take it vp [etc.].
1720 D. Defoe Capt. Singleton 94 Ten Men with Poles took up one of the Canoes, and made nothing to carry it.
1844 Hood's Mag. May 414 Take her up tenderly, Lift her with care.
1890 Universal Rev. Feb. 232 Martin‥had taken up a stone to throw at him.
b. spec. To raise or lift from some settled position, e.g. (plants) out of the ground, (a corpse) out of the grave, (a carpet) from the floor, etc.; to break up the surface of (a field, road, etc.). †to take up the table : to clear the table after a meal (orig. to remove the board off the trestles: see table n. 6c). Obs.
13.. Cursor M. 8045 (Cott.) , Quen þe king þam [þaa tres] had vp-tan, His ost þam honurd þan ilkan.
15.. Adam Bel 569 in W. C. Hazlitt Remains Early Pop. Poetry Eng. (1864) II. 162 Take vp the table, anone he bad: For I may eate no more.
1543 More's Hist. Richard III in Chron. J. Hardyng f. lxxxiv, Some saie that kyng Rychard caused ye preest to take theim vp & close‥theim in a coffine.
1585 T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie i. xxi, The table being taken vp, the Ambassador‥entred into the pauilion.
1612 T. Shelton tr. Cervantes Don-Quixote i. iv. vi. 358 Dinner being ended, and the table taken vp.
1633 P. Massinger New Way to pay Old Debts i. ii. sig. B4v, 'Tis not twelue a clocke yet, Nor dinner taking vp.
1836 Dickens Sketches by Boz 1st Ser. II. 328 The carpet was taken up.
1841 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 2 ii. 229 The turnips were taken up and carted.
1895 Times 5 Feb. 8/2 That would mean taking up all the streets in South London.
c. With special obj., implying a purpose of using in some way: as, to take up one's pen , to proceed or begin to write; to take up a book (i.e. with the purpose to read); to take up the (or one's) cross (see cross n. 4, 10): to take up arms at arm n.2 4c, to take up the cudgels at cudgel n. 2, the glove n., the hatchet n. (see the ns.).
c1420 Brut ccxlii. 355 Þay waged batayle & cast doun her gloues; & þanne þey were take vp and seled.
1481 Caxton tr. Hist. Reynard Fox (1970) 95 And therto I caste to the my gloue, and take thou it vp, I shal haue right of the or deye therfore.
1579 S. Gosson Apol. Schoole of Abuse in Ephemerides Phialo f. 81v, But if they take vp my gloue, and enter the Lyste‥I will‥teach them to know the weyght of my clubbe.
1590 ‘Pasquil’ First Pt. Pasquils Apol. sig. D4v, I cast them my Gauntlet, take it vp who dares.
1621 T. W. tr. S. Goulart Wise Vieillard A ij b, I tooke up my Pen againe, and at starts and tymes finished it.
1660 tr. M. Amyraut Treat. conc. Relig. ii. iv. 216 He took up arms for the conservation of his Country.
1712 R. Steele Spectator No. 514. ⁋1 Not finding my self inclined to sleep, I took up Virgil to divert me.
1816 Scott Old Mortality i, in Tales of my Landlord 1st. Ser. IV. 27 That the cause of his country, and of those with whom he had taken up arms, should suffer nothing from being entrusted to him.
1866 G. MacDonald Ann. Quiet Neighbourhood i, A man had to take-up his cross.
d. To raise, lift (one's hand, foot, head, etc.). Now of a horse or other beast.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 15227 Vp he toke his holy hond & ȝaf þe benesoun.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) ix. 249 Rycharde that lay a grounde thus wounded‥toke up his hede, and sayd [etc.].
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. ii. 73 He steps boldly, and takes up his Fore-Feet pretty high.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. ii. 77 A Horse should take up his Feet moderately high.
e. To take (a person) from the ground into a vehicle, or on horseback, etc. Said of a person, or of the carriage, horse, train, etc. Also absol. of a vehicle, a train, etc. To take up its occupants.
1689 London Gaz. No. 2511/4, A Hackney-Coachman took up 3 Persons at Mark-Lane-end.
1710 London Gaz. No. 4735/4, A Hackney Coach‥that took up his Fair in Southwark.
1831 Scott Ct. Robert ii, in Tales of my Landlord 4th Ser. II. 20 We should not criticise the animal [sc. elephant] which kneels to take us up.
1857 Trollope Barchester Towers x, Carriages‥were desired to take up at a quarter before one.
1893 Eng. Illustr. Mag. 10 257/2 Our coach‥duly took us up, and set us down.
1898 Westm. Gaz. 27 June 10/1 All carriages will take up on the Embankment and Savoy-hill.
1909 Bradshaw's Railway Guide Aug. 21 Stops to take up 1st class Passengers for London.
1909 Bradshaw's Railway Guide Aug. 21 Stops to take up for Reading or beyond.
†f. fig. To ‘raise’ (a siege). Obs. rare.
1490 Caxton tr. Foure Sonnes of Aymon (1885) xxiii. 493 Charlemagne‥receyved theim honourably, and toke vp his siege, and went agen to parys.
a. To lead, conduct, convey, or carry (a person or thing) to a higher place or position.
a1300 Cursor M. 17547 (Cott.) , Þat helias in ald dais, Was taken up als vnto heuen.
1526 Bible (Tyndale) Acts i. 9 Whyll they behelde he was taken vp, and a cloude receaued hym vp out of their sight.
1748 B. Robins & R. Walter Voy. round World by Anson ii. viii. 219 The taking up oysters from great depths‥by Negro slaves.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. He took me up into the belfry. You needn't walk up the stairs; they will take you up in the lift.
b. spec. To bring (a horse, ox, etc.) from pasture into the stable or stall.
1482 in H. E. Malden Cely Papers (1900) 122 Lette hym ron in a parke tyll Hallowtyd and then take hym wpe and ser hym and lette hym stand in the dede of whynter.
1688 R. Holme Acad. Armory (1905) iii. xix. 184/2 Take vp your horse, is to take him from grasse to be kept in the stable.
1844 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 5 i. 75 Calves‥are taken up at night about the latter end of October.
1846 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 7 ii. 394 Sixteen polled beasts‥were taken up.
a. To pull up or in, so as to tighten or shorten; to make fast in this way, as a dropped stitch. In quot. 1882 intr. for pass. to become shortened, shrink. Also, †to make (a further hole) in order to shorten a strap. Hence, to shorten or tighten (a garment, pattern, etc.), esp. by hemming or tucking.
1804 M. Edgeworth To-morrow v, in Pop. Tales III. 341 This operation of taking up a stitch‥is one of the slowest.
1818 C. Brown Let. 7 Aug. in Lett. J. Keats (1958) I. 361, I must have another hole taken up in the strap of my Knapsack.
1882 G. S. Nares Seamanship (ed. 6) 226 The longer the rope the more it takes up.
1891 M. M. Dowie Girl in Karpathians iii. 33 Each girth was altered to its last hole, the stirrup-leather taken up half a yard, but nowhere could it grip the little beast.
1892 Field 8 Oct. 545/3 The direction to the groom would be ‘take up’ (or ‘let down’, as the case may be) the near-side horse's coupling rein.
1916 L. I. Baldt Clothing for Women ix. 186 To shorten pattern.‥ Lay fold at same point, to shorten length, unless a great deal has to be taken up, in which case some could be taken from the bottom.
1937 P. H. Richards Dress Creation xiii. 113 The quantity taken up in the tucks should amount in all to the distance between A and C.
1972 A. Ross London Assignment 28 The trousers were a fraction long, and would need to be taken up.
b. To tie up or constrict (a vein or artery); ‘to fasten with a ligature passed under’ (Johnson).
1566 T. Blundeville Order Curing Horses Dis. clxxx. f. 116v, in Fower Offices Horsemanshippe, The takying vp of vaynes is verye necessary, and doth ease manye griefes in the legges.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. i. 41 The Absurdity of taking up the Veins for the Cure of Spavins.
1840 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 1 iii. 322 Should any considerable [blood] vessel be opened, it will be necessary to take it up by passing a thread underneath it, and tying it tightly.
a. To take into one's possession, possess oneself of; with various shades of meaning, as: to purchase wholesale, buy up; to get, receive, or exact in payment; to levy; to borrow (at interest); to hire; to apply for or claim. Cf. take-up n. (and adj.) 6.
c1450 Jacob's Well (1900) 40 And þou apeyryst & lessyst þat tythe in takyng vp þi cost, here þou makyst þe cherche thrall.
a1525 (1421) Coventry Leet Bk. (1907) I. 29 Þat no maner of fresche fysher by, ne take up, no maner of fresche fysche of men of the contrey by way of regratry.
1528 Bill in R. G. Marsden Sel. Pleas Admiralty (1894) I. 41, I Thomas Thorne‥have taken up by exchange of Thomas Fuller merchaunt‥the sum of lxli sterling.
1589 G. Puttenham Arte Eng. Poesie iii. xii. 141 He that standes in the market way, and takes all vp before it come to the market in grosse and sells it by retaile.
1655 tr. C. Sorel Comical Hist. Francion iv. 23, I must buy me a Cloak lined with plush, or take one up at the Brokers.
1768 H. Brooke Fool of Quality III. xvi. 259 He took up all the money he could, at any interest.
1838 T. Mitchell tr. Aristophanes Clouds 6 Strepsiades had for the purchase taken up money with two usurers, Pasias and Amynias.
1890 Pict. World 2 Jan. 11/3 The whole of the limited edition‥was taken up by the booksellers on the day of publication.
1971 Guardian 15 Apr. 1/1 A major campaign to persuade people to take up their welfare and social security benefits has been launched by the Government.
b. To take (land) into occupation; to begin to occupy, settle upon. Cf. also 22 (b).
1478 Acta Dom. Conc. (1839) 6/1 He occupijt and tuke vp sa mekle of þe said landis of þe ȝeris forsaide.
1682 S. Wilson Acct. Province Carolina 16 Rent to commence in two years after their taking up their Land.
1890 ‘R. Boldrewood’ Colonial Reformer (1891) 76 Persons‥could ‘take up’, that is merely mark out and occupy, as much land as they pleased.
c. To accept or pay (a bill of exchange); to advance money on (a mortgage); to subscribe for (stock, shares, a loan) at their original issue.
1832 Examiner 283/1 It was not convenient for her husband to take up the bill.
1847 C. G. Addison Treat. Law Contracts (1883) ii. v. §1 771 A person who takes up a bill supra protest for the benefit of a particular party to the bill succeeds to the title of the party from whom‥he receives it.
1869 Bradshaw's Railway Man. XXI. 402 Of 100,000 new 10l. shares‥84,837 have been taken up.
1873 H. Spencer Study Sociol. x. 251 Not one of the thousand shares was taken up.
1888 H. R. Haggard Col. Quaritch xi. 84, I am disposed to try and find the money to take up these mortgages.
1890 Chambers's Jrnl. 10 May 294/1 Sums of money could be remitted for the purpose of taking up bills on the last day of grace.
1891 Harper's Mag. Nov. 946/2 He persuaded the citizens to take up the Queen's loans themselves.
d. To make (a collection). Sc. and U.S. Also fig.
1849 E. Davies Amer. Scenes 42 While they were singing Brother such-a-one would ‘take up the collection’.
1880 ‘M. Twain’ Tramp Abroad ix. 88 She became a sort of contribution box. This dear young thing in the theatre had been sitting there unconsciously taking up a collection [of fleas].
1892 ‘M. Twain’ in Idler Feb. 15 They take up a collection and bury him.
1908 Daily Chron. 21 Dec. 4/7 The tambourine‥still serves its notable purpose for ‘taking up’, as the Scotch say, a collection.
a. To obtain or get from some source; to adopt, ‘borrow’ (= sense 30); to apprehend with the senses, perceive (quot. 1607); to deduce, infer (= 31b); to contract, ‘catch’ (= 44b). Obs.
1607 E. Topsell Hist. Fovre-footed Beastes 585 Presently the wilde beastes take it [sc. the scent] vp, and follow it withall speede they can.
1628 J. Earle Micro-cosmogr. ii. sig. B3, Notes of Sermons, which taken vp at St. Maries, hee vtters in the Country.
1662 E. Stillingfleet Origines Sacræ iii. ii. §5 That the general conclusions of reason‥were taken up from the observation of things as they are at present in the world.
1700 Dryden Fables Pref. sig. *Bv, I find I have anticipated already, and taken up from Boccace before I come to him.
1848 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 9 ii. 360 We can conceive that an animal‥should take up the disease, and afterwards communicate it to others.
†b. ? To receive, get, have accorded to one.
1639 T. Fuller Hist. Holy Warre v. xxvi. 274 A Chronologer of such credit, that he may take up more belief on his bare word then some other on their bond.
a. To receive into its own substance or interstices; to absorb (a fluid); to dissolve (a solid); also, to receive and hold upon its surface (quot. 1840). Also absol. (see quot. 1974).
1682 Art & Myst. of Vintners 20 Dip in it [printed it in] so many cloaths as will take it up, and put the cloaths in your Hogshead.
1740 H. Bracken Farriery Improv'd (ed. 2) II. v. 105 Nutritive Juices, taken up by the absorbent Vessels.
1758 A. Reid tr. P. J. Macquer Elem. Chym. I. 47 An acid cannot take up above such a certain proportion thereof as is sufficient to saturate it.
1805 W. Saunders Mineral Waters 29 Water, at a moderate temperature, will readily take up its own bulk of carbonic acid gas.
1840 P. H. Gosse Canad. Naturalist xvi. 251 Capable of taking up and holding a large quantity of water.
1877 Scribner's Monthly 15 141/2 The elastic roller thus takes up the color from the pores of the wood.
1892 Cornhill Mag. Sept. 257 Water will take up 2 lb. 10 oz. of salt to the gallon.
1960 E. L. Delmar-Morgan Cruising Yacht Equipm. & Navigation vii. 86 The planks and timbers will dry out.‥ When they are once again waterborne they will leak until the wood ‘takes up’.
1974 J. Keats Of Time & Island xi. 177 The [fibreglass] boats did not have to be put into the river to soak, or take up, as the people said.
b. Engin. To accept, absorb, or assimilate (by gearing, etc.).
1921 Conquest Oct. 510/2 It appears to have solved the problem generally of how gradually and smoothly to take up and transmit the power of a prime mover or motor.
1966 Listener 24 Nov. 773/1 Although the paint is applied neatly, there are slight irregularities.‥ These slight irregularities help the colours to engage with each other,‥rather as the slightly abrasive surface of a clutch-plate takes up the transmission.
7. To grasp with the mind; to apprehend, understand: = sense 46; to take in at Phrasal verbs 1. Also with the speaker as obj. (= 46b). Obs. exc. Sc. in general sense; now only in restricted sense: To apprehend, appreciate (points in discourse, etc.).
1667 Guthrie's Christian's Great Interest (ed. 4) 58 A man may take up his gracious state by his faith, and the acting thereof on Christ.
1741 I. Watts Improvem. Mind i. vi. 101 A Student should never satisfy himself with bare Attendance on the Lectures of his Tutor, unless he clearly takes up his Sense and Meaning.
1825 J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. Suppl. at Tak up, He taks up a thing before ye have half said it.
1867 N. Macleod Starling I. v. 55, ‘I do not take you up, sir’, replied the Sergeant.
1910 N.E.D. at Take, Mod. He is a humorous speaker, and his jokes were well taken up by the audience.
a. To accept. †(a) To accept mentally (upon credit or trust), believe without examination, take for granted. Obs. (b) To accept (anything offered, esp. a challenge, a bet: also the person who offers it). Cf. 40. See also gauntlet n.1 1c, glove n. 1d: see a (c).
1626 Bacon Sylva Sylvarum §34 It is strange how the ancients took up experiments upon credit, and yet did build great matters upon them.
1662 E. Stillingfleet Origines Sacræ i. iv. §8 Greek writers‥took up things upon trust as much as any people in the world did.
1711 J. Addison Spectator No. 126. ¶9 Notwithstanding he was a very fair Bettor, no Body would take him up.
1880 G. Meredith Tragic Comedians xviii, Marko‥had taken up Alvan's challenge.
1892 Sat. Rev. 8 Oct. 403/2 Mr. Stanley (on taking up the freedom of Swansea) spoke very vigorously on the subject.
1893 Temple Bar 97 21 It don't concern you who takes up the bets.
b. to take (a person) up on (something): to accept an offer, invitation, etc. colloq.
1914 S. Lewis Our Mr. Wrenn v. 63 ‘We'll go Dutch to a lodging-house.’‥ ‘All right, sir; all right. I'll take you up on that.’
1948 ‘N. Shute’ No Highway vii. 192 It's just an estimate.‥ I didn't want people to take me up on it like this.
1961 J. Stroud Touch & Go iv. 45 ‘Tell her not to hesitate to ask.’ ‘Thank you.‥ I might take you up on that.’
1974 ‘E. Ferrars’ Hanged Man's House xv. 149 I'll go over to see Mrs Bayne and take her up on her invitation to lunch.
1979 B. Parvin Deadly Dyke xxiv. 134, I must be going. I'll take you up on that coffee later.
9. To take (a person) into one's protection, patronage, or other relation; to adopt as a protégé or associate; to begin to patronize.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) Luke i. 54 He, hauynge mynde of his mercy, took vp Israel, his child.
1482 Monk of Evesham 35 That worshipfull olde fader the whiche‥had take me vp to be a felow with him of his wey.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 751/2, I take up, as a man taketh up his frende that maketh hym curtesye.
1641 Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia sig. B4, The blow falling on Edward the late Earle of Hartford, who to his costs tooke up the divorced Lady, of whom the Lord Beauchampe was borne.
1848 Thackeray Vanity Fair li. 451 When the Countess of Fitz-Willis‥takes up a person, he or she is safe.
1877 Scribner's Monthly 15 62/2 He is just the man to take up a girl whom everybody neglected.
1892 Black & White 10 Dec. 679/1 A great art patron took him up and he became ‘the fashion’.
a. To levy, raise, enlist (troops). Obs.
1560 J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. ccxixv, He toke vp all that were able to weare armure.
1600 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 2 ii. i. 188 You are to take souldiers vp In Counties as you go.
1632 W. Lithgow Totall Disc. Trav. iii. 91 He was taken vp as a souldier.
†b. intr. for refl. To enter (military or naval) service; to enlist; = to take on at Phrasal verbs 1. Obs.
1689 T. Shadwell Bury-Fair i. ii, The top of their fortune is to take up in some Troop.
11. trans. To capture, seize.
†a. Chess. = sense 2d. Obs.
c1440 Gesta Rom. (Harl.) xxi. 71 Þe rook‥holdith length & brede, and takith vp what so is in his way.
c1475 Treat. Chess (Ashm. 344) lf. 5, Then he takith hym vpp with his knight.
b. Falconry. To bring under restraint (a young hawk ‘at hack’) in order to train it: see quot. and hack n.2 1. Cf. 2b.
1826 J. S. Sebright Observ. Hawking 8 When‥[Hawks] have omitted to come for their food at the accustomed hour, for two or three successive days,‥it will be necessary to take them up, or they would in a short time go away altogether.
1881 E. B. Michell in Macmillan's Mag. Nov. 40 An experienced falconer will ‘take up’ a young merlin from hack and have him trained in three or four days.
†c. to take up for hawks : (app.) to seize and slaughter (an old or useless horse) as meat for hawks; hence allusively, taken up for hawks = done for, ruined. Obs.
1471 J. Paston in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) I. 565, I beseche yow, and my horse‥be not takyn vp for the Kyngys hawkys, that he may be had hom and kept in your plase.
a1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) iii. iii. sig. E.ij, Ye were take vp for haukes, ye were gone, ye were gone.
[Cf. 1632 R. Brome Northern Lasse i. iv, 'Slid I'le marrie out of the way; 'tis time I think: I shall be tane up for Whores meat else.]
12. To seize by legal authority, arrest, apprehend; in quot. 1821, to summon as a witness.
a1599 Spenser View State Ireland in J. Ware Two Hist. Ireland (1633) 112 Though the Sheriffe have this authority‥to take up all such stragglers, and imprison them.
1682 A. Wood Life & Times (1894) III. 31 Duke of York hath brought an action against one Arrowsmith‥upon the statute of Scandalum magnatum, who is taken up for it.
1797 R. Southey Lett. from Spain xxiv. 392 The Alcayde took up all the inhabitants of the village where it happened.
1821 J. Galt Ann. Parish xii. 117 It was thought she would have been taken up as an evidence in the Douglas cause.
1861 Temple Bar 2 358 [He] was taken up for sacrilege, and brought before a magistrate.
†13. To arrest the progress or action of; to check, stop, ‘pull up’. Obs.
1631 J. Weever Anc. Funerall Monuments To Rdr. 7, I haue beene taken vp in diuers Churches by the Churchwardens‥and not suffered to write the Epitaphs.
1699 W. Dampier Voy. & Descr. i. iv. 78 For a small piece of Money a man may pass quiet enough, and for the most part only the poor are taken up.
a. intr. for refl. To check oneself, stop short, ‘pull up’; to slacken one's pace; to restrain oneself; to reform, mend one's ways. Now U.S., of a horse; also intr. of a rider, to rein in.
a1625 F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher Captaine iv. iii, in Comedies & Trag. (1647) sig. Hh4v/1, Take up quickly; Thy witt will founder of all foure else wench, If thou hold'st this pace; take up when I bid thee.
1661 S. Pepys Diary 13 Nov. (1970) II. 213 My expenseful life‥will undo me I fear‥if I do not take up.
1699 B. E. New Dict. Canting Crew at Oats, One that has sown his wild Oats,‥begins to take up and be more Staied.
1832 Examiner 611/1 She longs to make her fortune by her trade, that she may ‘take up and live godly’.
1868 J. C. Atkinson Gloss. Cleveland Dial., Tak' up,‥to reform one's ways.
1942 Sun (Baltimore) 20 Oct. 15/1 Fogoso‥cut sharply in front of Sunset Boy, causing Jimmy Berger to take up.
1946 Sun (Baltimore) 2 Oct. 15/2 Red Tag ran into tight corners at the head of the stretch and was forced to take up.
1950 Sun (Baltimore) 20 May 11/1 Queen May, ridden by Joe Culmone, was not to get through.‥ Culmone was forced to take up.
b. Of weather: To improve, mend, become fair.
1845 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 6 ii. 570 The weather took up immediately afterwards.
1889 J. A. Froude Two Chiefs Dunboy xiv, On the second evening the weather began to take up.
c. ‘Mech. To close spontaneously, as a small leak in a steam-pipe or water-pipe’ ( Cent. Dict.).
15. trans. To check (a person) in speaking; to interrupt sharply, esp. with an expression of dissent or disapproval; to rebuke, reprove, or reprimand sharply or severely. Also to take up short : see short adj., n., and adv.
1530 J. Palsgrave Lesclarcissement 750/1 It pityed my herte to here howe he toke hym up.
?1573 L. Lloyd Pilgrimage of Princes f. 158, His wife Xantippe beganne to take her housbande vp, with tauntyng and opprobrious wordes.
1645 T. Coleman Hopes Deferred 2 [He] rebukes him sharply, takes him up roundly.
1768 A. Tucker Light of Nature (1834) I. 80 Those, who would find fault with us for attributing colour, heat, and cold, to inanimate bodies, take us up before we were down.
1885 ‘F. Anstey’ Tinted Venus i. 14 ‘You do take one up so’, he complained! ‘I never intended nothing of the sort’.
1886 ‘H. Conway’ Living or Dead xxv, She wondered why the master took her up so short when she had mentioned his name.
†16. ‘To oppose, encounter, cope with’ (Schmidt Shaks. Lex.). Obs.
1600 Shakespeare Henry IV, Pt. 2 i. iii. 73 His diuisions‥And in three heads, one power against the French, And one against Glendower, perforce a third Must take vp vs.
a1616 Shakespeare Coriolanus (1623) iii. i. 243 Corio. On faire ground, I could beat fortie of them. Mene. I could my selfe take vp a Brace o'th' best of them.
1643 R. Baker Chron.: Henry VIII 5 King Henry‥in June kept a solemne Just at Greenwich, where he and Sir Charles Brandon took up all cummers.
†17. (?) To touch up; to urge on, incite. Obs.
1565 T. Stapleton tr. Bede Hist. Church Eng. v. vi. f. 158, But when I sawe them take their horses vppe with the spurres [L. concitatis‥equis].
a. To begin, commence (an action); esp. to begin to utter, set up, raise (laughter, lamentation, etc.). In quot. 1689 with inf. (obs.); in 1878 absol. (dial.). Obs. exc. intr. in U.S., (esp. of a school term) to begin, start up. Cf. to take in 21 at Phrasal verbs 1.
c1400 Brut 131 The Kyng his hondes lifte vp an hye, and a grete laughter toke op.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 15990 Þe cok toke vp his fliȝt.
?c1425 T. Hoccleve De Regimine Principum (Royal 17 D.vi) 122 The kyng tooke up a laughtir, and went his way.
1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. (1482) cxxviii. 107 The kynge‥a grete laughter toke vp.
a1500 Merchant & Son 103 in W. C. Hazlitt Remains Early Pop. Poetry Eng. (1864) I. 139 The goste toke up a gresely grone, with fendys awey he glode.
a1610 J. Healey tr. Theophrastus Characters (1636) 70 Then hee would take up a great laughter, as if some prodigy or ominous thing had happened.
1689 J. Aubrey Brief Lives (1898) I. 150 [2nd Ld. Falkland] 'Twas not long before he tooke-up to be serious.
1871 E. Eggleston Hoosier School-master xii. 104 Meetin's took up.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 15 653/1 Meanwhile the ‘animal show’ at the appointed time ‘took up’, as the country people expressed it.
1903 J. Fox Little Shepherd iii. 42 When school ‘took up again’, Chad was told to say them aloud in concert with the others.
1949 ‘J. Nelson’ Backwoods Teacher 51 Four other children‥trooped in, having belatedly heard that school was taking up today.
1961 M. Beadle These Ruins are Inhabited (1963) iii. 46 Red's school took up in two days.
†b. To start, raise, or begin a song; hence (Sc.) to lead the singing of (a psalm) in church. Obs. (Cf. also to take up one's parable at parable n. Phrases.)
a1380 Minor Poems fr. Vernon MS. xxiii. 1089 We han taken vp þe song Of Iubilacion.
1577 in J. D. Marwick Extracts Rec. Burgh Edinb. (1882) IV. 60 The oulklie pentioun of ten schillingis appoynttit to Edwerd‥Hendersoun, for all the dayis of his lyfe for taikin vp of the spalmes.
1637 in W. Cramond Ann. Cullen (1888) 39 To read in the kirk and take up the psalm every Sabbath.
1825 J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. Suppl. at Tak up, ‘He tuke up the psalm in the kirk’, he acted as precentor.
19. trans. To begin afresh (something left off, or begun by another); to enter anew upon; to resume.
1656 Ld. Orrery Parthenissa V. iii. iv. 250 With Atafernes I joyfully took up our way to the Camp.
1712 J. Addison Paraphr. Psalm xix, Soon as the evening shades prevail, The moon takes up the wondrous tale.
1833 H. Martineau Manch. Strike (new ed.) i. 5 When at last she lost her voice‥he took up the word.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Aug. 482/2 Mr. Ward's diary takes up the history‥just where Lord Malmesbury's memoirs leave it.
1879 M. Pattison Milton xii. 161 He took up all the dropped threads of past years.
1902 O. Wister Virginian xxxii. 421 We took up our journey, and by the end of the forenoon we had gone some distance.
a. To adopt (a practice, notion, idea, purpose, etc.); to assume (an attitude, tone, etc.); to engage in, ‘go in for’ (a study, profession, business, etc.).
a1450 Knt. de la Tour (1906) 64 She wolde not take hede to abyde unto her neygheboures‥haue taken up the guyse or array that she wold haue.
1589 G. Puttenham Arte Eng. Poesie ii. xi. sig. lv, They of late yeares haue taken this pastime vp among them.
1611 Bible (A.V.) Transl. Pref. 6 To haue the Scriptures in the mother-tongue is not a quaint conceit lately taken vp.
1660 tr. M. Amyraut Treat. conc. Relig. ii. ii. 163 He seem'd to have took up a resolution of trampling upon those superstitions.
1712 J. Arbuthnot John Bull i. iv. 9 Lewis Baboon had taken up the Trade of Clothier.
1821 Southey in Q. Rev. 25 289 Whatever part indeed Cromwell took up would be well maintained.
1890 Sat. Rev. 20 Sept. 355/1 Those parts of the Ethics which they are obliged to take up for ‘Greats’.
b. To take in hand, proceed to deal practically with (a matter, question, etc.); to interest oneself in, espouse, embrace (a cause).
1502 Star Chamber Proc. Michaelm. 18 Hen. VII, The said late Shireffes‥caused two of her frendes to take up this haynouse matier betuix theym as arbitrours.
1771 Mrs. Harris in Priv. Lett. Ld. Malmesbury I. 221 This [conflict with the City] was taken up yesterday in the House; the Speaker gave a detail of the fact.
1820 Examiner No. 618. 109/1 How generous to take up the cause of the afflicted!
1869 E. A. Freeman Hist. Norman Conquest III. xiii. 312 The cause of William was eagerly taken up.
1892 Law Times 93 459/2 Mr. Bros‥suggested that the Public Prosecutor should take the matter up.
a. To make up, settle, arrange amicably (a dispute, quarrel, etc.). In quot. 1666, to make up temporarily, ‘patch up’. Obs.
1560 J. Daus tr. J. Sleidane Commentaries f. xxjv, He had done as much as lay in him that the matter might be taken vp.
1605 London Prodigall ii. ii, If you come to take up the matter between my master and the Devonshire man.
a1616 Shakespeare As you like It (1623) v. iv. 96, I knew when seuen Iustices could not take vp a Quarrell.
1666 S. Pepys Diary 24 Oct. (1972) VII. 340 The thing is not accommodated, but only taken up.
†b. To make up, make good. Obs.
1662 W. Gurnall Christian in Armour: 3rd Pt. iii. 302 If you be hindred of your rest one Night by business, you will take it up the next.
a. To proceed to occupy (a place or position, lit. or fig.); to station or place oneself in; = sense 27.
1565 T. Stapleton tr. Bede Hist. Church Eng. iii. x. f. 86, Taking vpp his inne, and finding the neighbours of the parish at feast with the oste.
1589 G. Puttenham Arte Eng. Poesie ii. iv. 61 He taketh vp his lodging, and rests him selfe till the morrow.
a1672 A. Wood Life (1891) I. 109 When they were going to their‥beds, two or 3 houres after he had taken up his rest.
1736 J. Wesley Wks. (1872) I. 26 Mr. Delamotte and I took up our lodging with the Germans.
1840 C. Thirlwall Hist. Greece VII. lviii. 307 He cleared the defiles and took up his quarters for the rest of the winter at Celænæ.
1888 J. McCarthy & R. C. Praed Ladies' Gallery II. ii. 29, I did not accept his invitation to take up my residence in his house.
1893 H. D. Traill Social England Introd. 15 We may take up a position from which we can survey the entire array.
†b. To engage or hire (a lodging) for the purpose of occupying; = sense 15c. Cf. 2d (b). Obs.
1602 J. Marston Antonios Reuenge i. ii. sig. Bv, Twere best you tooke some lodging vp, And lay in priuate till the soile of griefe Were cleard your cheeke.
1709 J. Strype Ann. Reformation I. xv. 188 The Bp. of London's palace, and the Dean of Paul's house,‥were taken up for the French ambassadors.
c. take up house: †to take or rent a house (obs.); to start housekeeping; become a householder. Sc.
1612 Shetland Act in Scotsman 29 Jan. (1886) 7/2 It sall not be lesum for servile persones not worth‥72 punds Scottis to tak up houssis.
1850 Tait's Edinb. Mag. Jan. 13/1 He was unwilling to incur the expense of taking up house.
1876 S. Smiles Sc. Naturalist i, John Edward and his wife ‘took up house’ in the Green, one of the oldest quarters of the city.
†d. absol. or intr. To take up one's quarters, lodge, ‘put up’. Obs.
1631 B. Jonson Staple of Newes iv. ii. 160 in Wks. II, How much 'twere better, that my Ladies Grace, Would here take vp Sir, and keepe house with you.
1662 S. Pepys Diary 14 Oct. (1970) III. 223 To Cambrige‥whither we came at about 9 a-clock and took up at the ‘Beare’.
1720 D. Defoe Mem. Cavalier 15, I was‥forced to take up at a little Village.
a. trans. To occupy entirely; to occupy the whole of, fill up (space, time, etc.); to occupy exclusively (quot. 1615); to occupy so as to hinder passage, to obstruct (quots. a1616, 1631). Cf. 28.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 633 It tooke up in compasse aboue a mile.
1615 G. Sandys Relation of Journey 69 The men take them [the public baths] up in the morning, and in the afternoone the women.
a1616 Shakespeare Coriolanus (1623) iii. ii. 116 My throat of Warre be turn'd‥into a Pipe‥, and Schoole-boyes Teares take vp The Glasses of my sight.
1631 J. Weever Anc. Funerall Monuments 11 Tombes are made so huge great, that they take vp the Church, and hinder the people from diuine Seruice.
1640 S. D'Ewes in Lett. Lit. Men (Camden) 167 Some petitions‥tooke upp our time a great parte of the morning.
1705 tr. W. Bosman New Descr. Coast of Guinea xxii. 490 The Sixteen Red Cliffs, which take up in all about three Miles in length.
1719 D. Defoe Life Robinson Crusoe 84 The 7th‥I took wholly up to make me a Chair.
1825 New Monthly Mag. 14 392 The first quatrain‥is taken up with a list of rivers.
1885 E. Lynn Linton Autobiogr. Christopher Kirkland II. ix. 274 It took up his time and bored him.
b. To use up, consume (labour, material): cf. 28 ? Obs.
1679 J. Moxon Mech. Exercises I. viii. 142 The Framing work will take up more labour.
1712 J. James tr. A.-J. Dézallier d'Argenville Theory & Pract. Gardening 121 You may fill up the Holes to the Level of the Ground‥, to take up the Earth that may possibly remain to be disposed of.
1719 D. Defoe Life Robinson Crusoe 79 The prodigious deal of Time and Labour which it took me up to make a Plank or Board.
c. To occupy or engage fully, engross (a person, his attention, mind, etc.). Chiefly in pass. (const. with, sometimes in); also in Sc. and north. dial. = to be taken with, take an absorbing or engaging interest in.
1616 B. Jonson Cynthias Revels (rev. ed.) v. iii. 30 in Wks. I, Hee is taken vp with great persons.
a1617 P. Baynes Lect. 201 in Comm. Colossians (1634) , To take our selves up with some behoofefull duty.
1630 P. Massinger Renegado iv. i. sig. H4, I am so wholy taken vp with sorrow.
1712 E. Budgell Spectator No. 301. ⁋8, I was wholly taken up in these Reflections.
1832 H. Martineau Hill & Valley v. 76 She is taken up with making her husband comfortable.
1885 J. Ruskin Præterita I. vi. 174, I was extremely taken up with the soft red cushions of the armchairs.
1892 Mrs. H. Ward David Grieve II. 32, I think he feels he must make his way first. His business takes him up altogether.
II. intransitive senses.(See also subordinate uses in to take in 14 at Phrasal verbs 1, to take off 1c at Phrasal verbs 1, to take in 18 at Phrasal verbs 1, 22d.)
24. take up for: to stand up for, take the part of, side with. U.S. Cf. to take for at sense 20b.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 15 769/2 To Amanda's surprise her father took up for Mark.
1878 Scribner's Monthly 16 627/2 Twonnet thought‥that it was a shame for‥Mr. Whittaker to take up for Bonamy.
1936 M. Mitchell Gone with Wind xii. 234, I knew you were doing it just to take up for me.
1977 New Yorker 6 June 85/1 ‘Wouldn't it embarrass you, hearing that your daddy spent a night in jail?’ And Henry said no, it wouldn't—not if he knew his daddy had been taking up for someone.
25. †take up in, to interest oneself or itself in, concern itself with, have reference to. Obs.
1665 J. Spencer Disc. Vulgar Prophecies 120 Hath not the World out-grown the follies of Auguries‥and took up in the resolves of Reason, as the best Oracle to consult in a civil business?
c1666 R. South Serm. John vii. 17 (1697) I. 246 The former Articles, that took up Chiefly in Speculation and Belief.
26. take up with. (Cf. to take with —— at Phrasal verbs 2 a-c.)
a. To associate with (a person); to begin to keep company with; to consort with (esp. with a view to marriage); to become friendly with, to form a relationship with. Cf. to take in 9 at Phrasal verbs 1.
a1625 J. Fletcher Wit without Money (1639) i. sig. B1, He's taken up with those that wooe the Widdow.
1693 Humours & Conversat. Town 28 The man of Mode takes up with a damn'd Jilt.
1815 Scott Guy Mannering I. xi. 173 To see his daughter taking up with their son.
1824 Examiner 250/2 Having‥absconded and taken up with another woman.
1887 E. E. Money Little Dutch Maiden (1888) 329 If you cannot marry her, you won't care to take up with another.
1957 R. Hoggart Uses of Literacy iii. 76 The woman he ‘took up with’ was likely enough to be married herself and of roughly the same age as his own wife.
1963 Australasian Post (Melbourne) 14 Mar. 44/1 Miss Dolly has ‘taken up’ with a poor but respectable cabinet-maker and his wife.‥ She sells her stolen nag to help them out.
1977 Daily Express 29 Jan. 7/2 The story is of a poor but pretty girl‥who breaks her engagement to a morose butcher‥and takes up instead with a feckless punter.
b. To adopt, espouse (esp. as a settled practice); to assent to, agree with, accept. arch.
1692 R. Bentley Boyle Lect. ii. 27, I could as easily take up with that senseless assertion of the Stoics.
1724 A. Collins Disc. Grounds Christian Relig. 275 Taking up with all manner of false proofs in behalf of Christianity.
1825 R. H. Froude in Remains (1838) I. 178 My lately having taken up with reading sermons.
1885 J. Martineau Types Ethical Theory I. 127 We take up at once with the belief that the space around us is empty.
†c. To be satisfied with; to content oneself with, put up with, tolerate. Obs.
1609 P. Holland tr. A. Marcellinus Rom. Hist. 394 Never doe wee find that he tooke up with any mild correction and punishment.
1633 Bp. J. Hall Plaine Explic. Hard Texts i. 395, I will not take up with the old and meane buildings of my Ancestors.
1726 Bp. J. Butler 15 Serm. xiv. 276 Nature teaches and inclines us to take up with our Lot.
1736 Bp. J. Butler Analogy of Relig. ii. viii. 282 The unsatisfactory Nature of the Evidence, with which we are obliged to take up.
1825 New Monthly Mag. 13 588 The book-sellers‥buy all the good books, and the joint stock company must take up with the refuse of the market.
†d. To betake oneself to: = to take to at Phrasal verbs 1. Obs.
1760 S. Fielding Ophelia I. iv. 24 At night he again took up with his Couch.
PV2. Intransitive uses in idiomatic combination with prepositions. to take after ——
1. To follow the example of; to imitate; hence, to resemble (a parent, ancestor, predecessor, superior, etc.) in nature, character, habits, appearance, or other quality.
1553 T. Wilson Arte Rhetorique (1580) 112 If the Nurse be of a noughtie nature, the childe must take thereafter.
1657 P. Heylyn Ecclesia Vindicata Gen. Pref., His Followers all take after him in this particular.
1678 E. Phillips New World of Words (ed. 4) at Imitatives, Patrissare, to take after the Father, or imitate his actions, humor, or fashion.
1892 Good Words Nov. 784/2, I take after my mother's family.
†2. ? To conceive a desire for or inclination to.
1707 tr. P. Le Lorrain de Vallemont Curiosities in Husbandry & Gardening 6 Men take strangely after this their first Imployment.
to take against ——
(= take part against): see 20b.
to take for ——
(= to take part): see 20b.
to take to ——
(See also 62, 63.)
1. To undertake, take in hand; to take charge of, undertake the care of. Obs. exc. dial.[Tóc tó þe ríce in quot. 1154 is the equivalent of the earlier feng tó (þam) ríce of the Chronicle: cf. anno 488, Her Esc feng to rice; 1066 Her forðferde Eaduuard king, and Harold eorl feng to ðam rice. Cf. also 62 with inf.]
1154 Anglo-Saxon Chron. an. 1140 (MS. E) , & te eorl of Angæu wærd ded, & his sune Henri toc to þe rice.
c1230 Hali Meid. 5 He wile carien for hire þat ha haueð itaken to of al þat hire biheoueð.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Fairf. 14) l. 5639 Þis wommon bleþely toke [the child] þer-to [Vesp. it vnder-fang] & fedde hit.
c1430 Freemasonry 120 That the mayster take to no prentysse, But he have good seuerans to dwelle Seven ȝer with hym.
1863 C. Kingsley Water-babies v. 199 All the little children whom the good fairies take to, because their cruel mothers and fathers will not. [See Eng. Dial. Dict. s.v.]
2. To betake oneself to, have recourse to (esp. some means of progression, as in take to the boats, take to flight, take to wing, to one's heels (heel n.1 20); also (now dial.) to some resource or means of subsistence).(The intr. use here and in 3 comes close in sense to the refl. use in 63a, 63c, and the trans. in 24c, 25a.)
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 11821 He hit wende. þat Arður hit wolde for-saken and nawiht to þan fehte taken.
c1400 Melayne 1148 At þe laste þay tuke to flyinge.
a1450 Le Morte Arthur 1380 Madame, how may thou to us take?
1596 T. Danett tr. P. de Commines Hist. (1614) 32 The King tooke to barge and returned to Paris.
a1616 Shakespeare Two Gentlemen of Verona (1623) iv. i. 40 Haue you any thing to take to? Val. Nothing but my fortune.
1693 Dryden in tr. Juvenal Satires xiv. 280 The callow Storks‥soon as e're to Wing they take, At sight those Animals for Food pursue.
1708 London Gaz. No. 4453/2, They took to their Oars, and got from us.
1761 D. Hume Hist. Eng. II. xxvii. 130 They immediately took to flight.
1786 S. Henley tr. W. Beckford Vathek 163 They all, without ceremony, took to their heels.
1873 J. G. Holland Arthur Bonnicastle i. 19, I should have alighted and taken to my feet.
3. To betake oneself to (a place); to repair, resort, or retire to; to take refuge in; to enter.
c1275 Laȝamon Brut 7976 He droh to on oþe[r] half and tock to herboreȝe.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 2832 No dwellyng here þat ȝe make Til ȝe þe ȝondir feld to take.
1707 J. Freind Acct. Earl of Peterborow's Conduct 211 Take to the Mountains on the right.
a1851 D. M. Moir Bass Rock iii, The rabbit‥Took to its hole under the hawthorn's root.
1876 C. M. Yonge Cameos cxxx, in Monthly Packet Sept. 216 He took to his bed, and there lay almost without speaking. [Cf. 25, and bed n. Phrases 10.]
†4. To attach oneself to, become an adherent of; to direct itself to. Obs. (Also with till, unto.)
c1275 (1200) Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 14566 Crist seolue he for-soc and to þan Wursen he tohc.
c1330 R. Mannyng Chron. (1810) 96 Þe maistres of þe portes for gyftes tille him toke.
c1425 Cursor M. (Trin.) 17533 Raþer shulde þei to vs take, Þen to ihesu for oure sake.
1625 Bacon Ess. (new ed.) 67 If it [sc. goodness] issue not towards Men, it will take vnto Other Liuing Creatures.
5. To devote or apply oneself to; to adopt or take up as a practice, business, habit, or something habitual: cf. 61b, 61c. See also road n. Phrases 11.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) Gen. xxxviii. 14 The which, the clothis of widewhed don down, toke to [Vulg. assumpsit] a roket.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 14114 O mani thing sco [sc. Mary] tok til an, Wit-vten quam es beute nan.
c1430 Freemasonry 462 Aȝayn to the craft they schul never take.
1610 P. Holland tr. W. Camden Brit. i. 692 Clothing (a trade which they tooke to).
1707 J. Stevens tr. F. G. de Quevedo y Villegas Comical Wks. (1709) 319 If you take to Begging, I will take to give nothing.
1834 E. Bulwer-Lytton Pilgrims of Rhine vi, He has since taken to drinking.
1843 Fraser's Mag. 28 203 She‥took to wearing caps.
1845 R. Ford Hand-bk. Travellers in Spain I. ii. 199 In Madrid‥the men have taken to‥Parisian paletos.
1887 H. R. Tedder in Dict. National Biogr. IX. 330/2 With advancing years Caulfield took to drink.
1893 Scribner's Mag. Aug. 227/2 She has taken to society as a duck takes to water.
6. To apply oneself (well, kindly); to adapt oneself: leading to sense 7.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Fairf. 14) l. 8436 Þen was þis childe sette to boke ful wele I wis þer-to [Vesp. þar-wit] he toke.
1625 Bacon Ess. (new ed.) 34 Thinking they will take best to that, which they haue most Minde to.
1766 J. W. Baker in Compl. Farmer at Turnip, [The bullock] took kindly to the turnips.
1820 Examiner No. 637. 413/2 A tree which is late transplanted seldom takes well to the soil.
1885 in Manch. Weekly Times 6 June 5/5 The new members may not take kindly to the work.
7. To take a liking to, conceive an affection for. (For absolute use: see 50b.)
1748 H. Walpole Corr. (1837) II. 239, I took to him for his resemblance to you.
1796 C. Lamb Let. 3 Oct. (1935) I. 45 They, as the saying is, take to her very extraordinarily.
1844 Lady G. C. Fullerton Ellen Middleton (1884) 23 To use a familiar expression, we took to each other instantaneously.
1885 Manch. Examiner 22 July 3/2 When first the idea was suggested, Doré did not take to it.
8. N.Z. slang. To attack, usu. with fists.
1911 ‘Kiwi’ On Swag iii. 9 Take to him, Bill.
1960 N. Hilliard Maori Girl ii. xiv. 159 When we got home he really took to me. That was when I lost a lot of my teeth.
to take with ——
†1. To receive, to accept; = sense 39 [= Old Norse taka við to receive.] Obs.
1127 Anglo-Saxon Chron. (Laud) , Þet landfolk him wið toc.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 1516 Hu wel he takeþþ aȝȝ wiþþ þa. Þatt sekenn godess are.
?c1200 Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 104 To ȝarrkenn follc onn ȝæness crist. To takenn wiþþ hiss lare.
a1300 Cursor Mundi 820 For-þi yett wald he wit him tak.
a1400 (1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 5977 Vr lauerd wil tak na wirscip wit, þat man him dos in cursd kyth.
c1485 (1456) G. Hay Bk. Law of Armys (2005) 64 The barnis‥will nocht tak with the doctryne of the faderis.
1538 Bale God's Promises in I. Reed Dodsley's Sel. Coll. Old Plays (1780) I. 9 Yet shall they not with hym take.
†2. To take up with; to have to do with. Obs.
1597 Bacon Ess. f. 5, It is better to take with the more passable, then with the more able.
3. To be pleased with, put up with. ? dial. Cf. 50b; also take up with 93 z (c).
1632 S. Rutherford Lett. (1863) I. 97 The silly stranger, in an uncouth country, must take with a smoky inn and coarse cheer.
1638 R. Brathwait Barnabæ Itinerarium (new ed.) ii. sig. I2, Thence to Ridgelay, where a Black-smith, Liquor being all hee'd take with, Boused with me.
1825 J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. Suppl. (at cited word), Tak with, ‘How does the laddie like the wark?’ ‘Indeed‥he taks unco ill wi't’.
1844 H. Stephens Bk. of Farm II. 609 In a little time she will take with both [twin lambs].
†4. To take part with, agree with. Cf. 20b.
1654 J. Bramhall Let. in R. Parr Life J. Usher (1686) Coll. ccxciii. 612 Those of the King's Party asking some why they took with the Parliament's side.
1828 Scott Fair Maid of Perth vi, in Chron. Canongate 2nd Ser. III. 119, I would MacGillie Chattachan would take [later edd. agree] with me‥instead of wasting our best blood against each other.
†5. To admit, acknowledge, own. Obs.
a1653 H. Binning Serm. (1845) 607 Few of you will take with this, that ye seek to be justified by your own works.
1786 A. Gib Sacred Contempl. I. vii. i. 157 A person is therefore brought to see and take with this sin, only when his conviction issues in conversion.
6. To contract or become affected by; to catch (fire), absorb (water): = 44b, 44c (cf. also 44d). dial.
1822 J. Galt Steam-boat xvi. 347 The kill took low, and the mill likewise took wi't,‥and nothing was left but the bare wa's.
1847 Jrnl. Royal Agric. Soc. 8 ii. 380 When it [the flax] begins to ferment, or ‘take with the water’, the latter becomes turbid and discoloured.
In various idiomatic phrases (besides those mentioned under the senses to which they belong), as take into account n., in (into) one's head n.1, to take in pieces at piece n. Phrases 1, to task n., in tow n.1, upon trust n., in vain adj. and n., to witness n., at one's word n. and int., in worth n.1, etc., for which see the ns.
Draft additions March 2009
to take away
trans. To take (food) from the restaurant or shop where it has been prepared, as opposed to eating it on the premises. Also intr. Cf. to eat in vb. b at eat v. Additions; cf. also to take out vb. at Additions, to go at go v. Additions.
1937 Fitchburg (Mass.) Sentinel 11 Sept. 3/6 At the cafe nearby they will cook the fish for you to eat there or to take away as part of your picnic luncheon.
1974 Times 6 May 30/3 (advt.) Home made country fare, to eat or take away at Asbah buffet.
1994 N.Y. Times Bk. Rev. 6 Mar. 25/1 More body bits turn up in the vicinity of Dave's Fish and Chip Bar (‘Eat Here or Take Away’).
2005 Olive Mar. 103/4 Delicious, low fat handmade Indian food served in dinky tiffin boxes to eat in or take away.
Draft additions March 2009
to take out
trans. and intr. Chiefly N. Amer. = to take away vb. at Additions.
1934 Fresno (Calif.) Bee 1 Dec. 7/3 (advt.) Chow mein—Eat here or take out.
1974 Los Angeles Times 31 Oct. (Centinela South Bay section) vii. 7/6 Businessmen's luncheons and family dinners.‥ Eat in or take out, they invite.
1995 A. Hardy Where to eat in Canada 69 The soups‥are great and so are the cheese twists, which you can buy to take out.
2004 J. Slemrod & J. M. Bakija Taxing Ourselves (ed. 3) vii. 248 What is the appropriate tax treatment of salad bars in grocery stores or fast-food restaurants where the customer may eat in or take out?
Draft additions September 2006
trans. Baseball. Of a batter: to refrain deliberately from swinging at (a pitch).
1926 Frederick (Maryland) Post 15 Sept. 3/8 His observations had to do with the count of three balls and one strike on the batter. He is firmly convinced that at such a stage, it is always wise to take the next pitch.
1967 Encycl. Brit. III. 232/1 A batter is said to take a pitch when he makes no effort to swing or bunt the ball pitched past him to the catcher.
1994 D. Halberstam October 1964 (1995) Prol. p. xiii, A classic leadoff hitter who knew how to hit on the opposite field and how to take a lot of pitches and draw walks from pitchers.
2003 N.Y. Times (National ed.) 26 Oct. viii. 2/2 Whenever a hitter takes a close pitch with two strikes, Palermo instinctively punches him out, baseball lingo for when an umpire‥calls strike three."