I won't try to match German to English, but for an overview of the English side in my experience:
was a hot spiced festive alcoholic mixture served in a big bowl, stirred up on the spot by Victorian men in their drafty houses in the winter; think of Dickens, Sherlock Holmes, etc. To avoid confusion with the modern (cold) sense, we would call it hot punch
A strongly alcoholic hot punch might be called glogg
, but that word isn't very widely used and might be confused with grog
, which is what sailors and pirates used to drink.
In modern AE, punch
is a cold festive nonalcoholic mixture served in a big bowl at piano recitals, parties, receptions, ladies' club meetings, etc. It usually has one or more fruit-flavored elements and often something to add a little fizz, like ginger ale or sherbet, possibly even a decorative molded ring of frozen fruit floating in it. It was more fashionable in the mid-20th century, say 1940s-1970s. If someone adds alcohol to it on the sly, it's called spiked punch.Mulled wine
is wine served warm with spices, often sweetened; it may not have as many other ingredients as Glühwein, such as different types of wine or other liquor, but it's essentially similar.Cider
(the nonalcoholic kind) is a more concentrated, less sweet apple drink than apple juice. When sweetened and served warm with spices it's called mulled cider
and is more common in the US in the winter than mulled wine.
With other fruit juices in lesser proportions (orange, pineapple), and optionally some alcohol, mulled cider becomes wassail
. Because that word appears in many English Christmas carols, anything that could be called hot punch in another context is often called wassail during the Christmas season. The word is sometimes even used just for hot spiced cider, though to me that's stretching the definition too much.Eggnog
is a creamy, custard-like spiced festive drink often served at New Year's. It can be bought cold in cartons in the supermarket, but it tastes better warmed and with alcohol added. Eggnog is also a popular ice cream flavor.
There are several more descriptions in the archive, e.g.,related discussion: Punsch Standrelated discussion: Feuerzangenbowlerelated discussion: Feuerzangenbowlerelated discussion: cider - Apfelmost, Apfelsaft, Apfelweinrelated discussion: Hot cider - Glühmostrelated discussion: Apfelschorle - Apple Ciderrelated discussion: Eggnog tipsrelated discussion: egg nog - Eierlikör
Feuerzangenbowle seems to be in the general category of hot punch. To me flaming
sounds more appetizing than burnt