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  • Betrifft

    International Trade

    Free trade:
    Originally trade enabled people to obtain food and materials that they could not produce for themselves. For example, the UK does not have a climate suitable for growing bananas, and therefore needs to import these from abroad.
    More recently, it has been recognised that some countries can produce more cheaply, quickly or efficiently than others. It seems to make sense then, for countries to specialise in producing the goods that they can produce most efficiently, and to trade their surpluses of those goods for the products they cannot produce, or are less efficient at producing. In practice, trade has never been free, because some countries have taken steps to protect themselves. However, trade is freer for some countries than it is for others. You could say that it’ OK for countries to protect their own producers. However, in that case, all countries should be allowed to do this. At the moment, the trade rules are unfair. Some countries are forced to accept goods from abroad, while others protect their markets with import tariffs, quotas and subsidies.
    When it comes to international trade, there is one set of rules for the rich countries and another set for the poor countries. The rich countries have the advantage. The rich countries demand that the poor countries open their markets and abolish import tariffs. Yet the rich countries protect their own markets by imposing import tariffs. These are rigged rules and double standards! How will the world ensure sustainable production in order to feed its entire people, if one half benefits at the expense of the other? We need to revise the trade rules to ensure that they are fair for everyone.
    •a decision by the international organisations which lend money to poor countries to stop attaching conditions which force these countries to open their markets regardless of the impact on poor people;
    •a ban on agricultural export subsidies, ending the cycle of over-production which leads to dumping by the rich countries;
    •the prices for primary commodities (such as food) kept at higher levels, which would give small farmers everywhere higher incomes;
    •the WTO become more democratic, with poorer countries having a stronger voice
    •the rich countries remove barriers which prevent imports from the poorer countries.

    VerfasserAnonym27 Mär. 07, 07:02

    Globalization is the process by which the world is becoming more and more solid as a result of extremely increased trade and cultural exchange. It is the result of technological changes that enable people, goods, money and above all information and ideas to travel the world much faster than ever before, and the liberalisation of world markets, greatly increasing levels of trade between different parts of the world. Globalisation has been taking place for hundreds of years, but has speeded up enormously over the last half-century. Factors influencing globalisation include: Communications: TV, telephony and the internet have created a global village. Transport has become cheap and quick. Businesses can more easily ship products and raw materials all over the world - making products and services from all over the globe available to UK customers. Trade liberalisation: governments around the world have relaxed laws restricting trade and foreign investment, with some governments offering grants and tax incentives to persuade foreign companies to invest in their country. Although globalisation probably is helping to create more wealth in developing countries - it is not helping to close the gap between the world's poorest countries and the world's richest.
    Globalisation has resulted in many businesses setting up or buying operations in other countries. When a foreign company invests in a country, perhaps by building a factory or a shop, this is called inward investment. Companies that operate in several countries are called multinational corporations (MNCs, for example McDonald’s) or transnational corporations (TNCs).
    Some of the positive impacts are:
    Inward investment by MNCs helps countries by providing new jobs and skills for local people.
    MNCs bring wealth / foreign currency to local economies when they buy local resources, products and services - providing resources for education, health and infrastructure.
    There is far more mixing of people and cultures from all over the world, enabling more sharing of ideas, experiences, and lifestyles.
    It may help make people more aware of global issues such as deforestation and global warming - and alert them to the need for sustainable development.

    Some of the negative impacts they point to are:
    Globalisation operates mostly in the interests of the richest countries which continue to dominate world trade, and at the expense of developing countries
    There are no guarantees that the wealth from inward investment will benefit the local community. Often, profits are sent back.
    Multinational companies, with their massive economies of scale, may drive local companies out of business.
    less requirements lead to polluting the environment, running risks with safety or imposing poor working conditions and low wages on local workers.

    #1VerfasserDa27 Mär. 07, 07:05
    International Trade
    #2VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 07:05
    International Trade

    International trade is the exchange of goods and services across border. Products from the home economy are exported for sale in other countries. On the other hand, goods produced abroad are imported and sold on the domestic market.
    International trade brings advantages for both consumers and producers. Consumers benefit from the large selection of goods to choose from, and from the competitive prices which are the result of importing goods from abroad. Producers benefit as well because they gain new or bigger markets for their products by exporting them to other countries. The free exchange of goods and services worldwide would be beneficial to all - in theory, but in practice governments often intervene to control their country's foreign trading activities. They may do this in order to reduce their country's balance of payments deficit, or to raise additional revenue, or to protect their own industries. Some common restrictive measures are quotas (a limited number of goods/services that can be imported; example: cotton farmers in the USA are protected by a quota system, the USA only allows a limited number of cotton to be imported), tariffs (the importer has to pay high duties/tariffs if he wants to import goods – price of the goods increases – fewer people buy the product -people buy goods from domestic market because they are cheaper), complicated import licensing systems and a product has also to fulfil certain criteria to be permitted in a country. Governments can also promote exports by subsidizing or supporting producers, or offering tax incentives to exporters. In addition, the commercial section of embassies and trade delegations abroad do promotional work. Sometimes official visits by heads of states can be very effective in increasing the volume of foreign trade as they increase goodwill and arouse interest.

    #3VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 07:06
    Placing orders

    1)Phrases used to refer to previous contact:

    We thank you for your quotation of 29 September and ask you to supply the following goods:
    Please supply as specified below:
    We have studied your catalogue and have found your products and terms satisfactory.
    We confirm our order by telephone this morning as follows:
    In confirmation of our agreement we (enclose your Contract No. 8264)

    2)Phrases used to confirm the terms of payment:

    As agreed, payment will be made by giro transfer 10 days after receipt of delivery.
    … made by SWIFT transfer on receipt of invoice/order
    … made by banker’s draft within 10 days after date of invoice
    … made by cheque/cash on delivery within 10 days fro receipt of order

    3)Phrases used to confirm the terms of delivery:

    Please note that delivery must be made by 15 November.
    Please note that the goods have to be delivered/reach us in the course of next week/ before the end of this month/ within 2 weeks.
    Complete delivery by 15 November is absolutely essential/ is a firm condition of this order.
    This order is placed on the understanding that delivery will be effected within 10 days after receipt of order. We would ask you to pay special attention to careful packing.
    We reserve the right to return the goods at your risk and expense should we receive them after 20 December.

    4)Phrases used to close the letter:

    We look forward to your confirmation of our order.
    We are looking forward to receiving the goods in time and doing further business with you.
    We are looking forward to receiving the goods in time and good condition.
    A prompt and careful execution of this order will lead to regular repeats.

    Dear Mr. Jameson, - Yours sincerely,

    1.to confirm the order:
    Thank you for your order no. 12 of 16 February
    Many thanks for your order no. 123 which we received today and confirm as follows:

    2.to confirm that you are able to deliver:
    We are pleased to inform you that all items can be supplied from stock
    As requested, delivery will be made in the course of next week.
    As requested, the goods will be delivered/dispatched on receipt of your bankers draft
    The order will be dispatched as soon as we have received confirmation of your ..
    The consignment will be shipped immediately upon receipt of your bank transfer
    Your consignment will be dispatched on receipt of confirmation of your B/E
    We are pleased to confirm that the goods will reach you by February 28
    We are confident that we can meet the delivery deadline of March
    As requested, delivery will be made by the end of this month.
    As all items are in stock, we will be able to supply them well in advance of the deadline you request.

    3.to say what has already been done to ensure a prompt execution of the order:
    We have already made arrangements for immediate shipment /dispatch within ..
    We have already contacted our forwarding agent to ensure prompt delivery
    We have already contacted our shipping agent to arrange for dispatch within /shipment by
    We have contacted WorldCargo to arrange for shipment to …

    4.to apologize and suggest alternatives if you are not able to deliver:
    Unfortunately, the goods you require are temporarily out of stock
    We are sorry that, the model you ordered is no longer available.
    Nevertheless, we could supply a suitable substitute from stock/within a week

    5.to close the letter:
    We trust that the consignment will reach you in time and good condition
    We are confident that we can meet the delivery deadline of
    We are looking forward to doing further business with you
    #4VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 07:07

    Tourism – summary

    In many countries tourism is an important part of the tertiary sector. When we think of tourism, we think of holidays, but arranging business travel and organising events like conferences, festivals and exhibitions are also important.
    You can make your own travel arrangements direct with airlines or railways, bus and coach companies, but it is often more convenient to use the internet or services of a travel agency, a firm that specialises in making travel arrangements. Travel agents offer their clients a range of services such as obtaining tickets and reserving seats, booking accommodation, offering insurance packages, advising on routes, arranging tours or car rentals. Other helpful organisations are the tour operators. These act as middlemen between travel agents and the providers (hotelkeepers, carriers etc.) They send their staff out to holiday destinations and negotiate favourable terms, policies, and also co-ordinate activities, encourage new initiatives, set standards, distribute information to potential customers. Some tour operators specialise in certain kinds of travel, e.g. cruises, study tours, coach tours, activity holidays or city breaks. When people are on the move, they need somewhere to stay overnight. For your accommodation you have a wide choice of possibilities. You can live in hotels, guesthouses, bed and breakfast places, (youth) hostels or private homes which take paying guests. Self-catering accommodation is also an option: apartments, chalets and villas. Camping with a tent, a towing caravan or a motor-home appeals to more independent adventurous travellers. Catering establishments provide a wide selection of food and drink, from gourmet dinners in grand restaurants to take-away meals like fish and chips. In recent years fast-food chains have become popular, and there is a growing interest in exotic specialities. People’s concern about health and nutrition is also reflected in the increasing variety of organic and vegetarian food on offer.
    Areas that are developed for tourism have to provide various facilities or offer certain attractions, e.g.: infrastructure: communications, hotels, restaurants, shops; sports facilities; entertainment and special events; unspoilt nature; historic buildings, museums, etc. Business travellers or congress and seminar tourists may require additional facilities, secretarial or translational services.
    Maintaining these facilities is hard work: lakes and beaches must be kept clean, countryside and forests tidy and attractive, and historic buildings safe and interesting for the general public. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world today. It is an important factor in the economy of most developed countries, while it is seen by many developing countries as the one possible way to obtain income and to create jobs.
    We have to balance the environmental and social costs of tourism against its obvious economic benefits.
    •Income from tourism has a positive effect on the balance of payments.
    •Many people are employed in tourism-related jobs.
    •Tourism can revitalise run-down city areas and depopulated country areas.
    •Substantial investment may be necessary at the beginning.
    •Masses of visitors cause damage to monuments, historic cities and stretches of countryside.
    •culture clash, particularly in developing countries
    •exploitation of weak groups (children, low-paid or “black workers”)

    #5VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 07:07
    Trends in tourism
    #6VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 07:08
    Summary about trends in tourism

    In recent years, the nature of tourism has changed. Nowadays, more people have the possibility to go on holidays because the people get richer, have more holidays and often they get a holiday pay. So tourism is becoming available and affordable to more people than years ago. Another reason is that, budget airlines reach more and more destinations and they expand options for business travellers and also bigger planes for long distance flights have been developed. In addition, the internet makes it easier for booking holidays and offers a wide variety of individual vacations.
    Furthermore, the economic growth and political liberalization are breaking down old barriers. In particularly, the EU-enlargement makes it possible that budget airlines or hotel chains are expanding to Eastern European countries. Therefore, more and more people from eastern European countries visit Europe’s best-known Alpine resorts.
    However, many first-time travellers explore their homelands and neighbour countries first because they would know something about their landscape, culture and history.
    Another trend is that people are more active in their old age and therefore they represent an important target group. These people have money, time and they are mobile. The travel agencies only provide for these target group special offers such as recreation & relaxation vacations. However, they are not the only new target group. There is a new breed of rich travellers and this group form childless young singles, also called “dinkis”.
    I am sure the next generations will be able to go anywhere because of the completed globalisation in travelling.
    #7VerfasserTimmy27 Mär. 07, 08:49
    Disadvantages of tourism
    • Hotels, airports and roads spoil the visual appearance
    and create noise, air pollution and litter
    • Usually only 10% -20% of the income received from
    tourists stays in the country. Most hotels are foreign
    owned and profits go overseas. Tourists spend most of
    their money in the hotels.
    • Much employment is seasonal. Overseas labour may be
    brought in to fill the better-paying jobs.
    • Local craft industries may be destroyed in order to provide
    mass-produced, cheap souvenirs.
    • Farming economy is damaged as land is sold to developers.
    Much of the food eaten by tourists is imported either
    because local production is insufficient or to meet
    the demands for European type foods (but sold at the
    developing country’s prices.
    • Locals cannot afford tourist facilities.
    • Borrowed money increases national debts.
    • Tourists expect unlimited water. Many areas may be
    short of water for domestic and farming use.
    • Local cultures and traditions are destroyed. New social
    problems of prostitution, crime, drugs and drunkenness.
    Lack of respect for local customs and religious beliefs
    (e.g. semi-naked tourists into mosques and temples).

    Advantages of tourism
    • The natural environment (sun, sea, sand and the scenery)
    is used to attract tourists and their much-needed
    • Income from tourism is usually greater than the income
    form the export of a few raw materials.
    • Creates domestic employment, e.g. hotels, entertainment
    and guides. It is labour intensive.
    • Encourages the production of souvenirs.
    • Creates a market for local farm produce.
    • Overseas investment in airports, roads and hotels.
    • Profits can be used to improve local housing, schools,
    hospitals, electricity and water supplies.
    • Increased cultural links with foreign countries, and the
    preservation of local customs and heritage.
    • Reduces migration.
    #8VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:02

    Dear Mr/Mrs Smith,


    We thank you for your letter of .., informing us that …

    We have looked into this matter and found that …

    We assure you that similar mistakes will not happen again.

    We have already arranged for the immediate dispatch of …

    We apologize for the inconvenience and thank you for your patience in this matter.

    We look forward to hearing of the safe arrival of the substitutes and to doing further business with you.

    Yours sincerely,

    #9VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:05

    Dear Mr/Mrs Smith

    Your reference no. 234

    Our order no 234 for 234324 arrived today.

    Seven of eight machines are in perfect condition. However, one machine is damage is due to faulty packing.

    In our opinion, the damage is due to faulty packing.

    Please arrange for the immediate dispatch of a replacement, because we …

    We are keeping the damaged machine in our warehouse until we receive instructions from you.

    Yours sincerely,

    #10VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:05

    Any tourist destination can be harmed by excessive amounts of tourism. If tourist destinations are damaged or destroyed, they will not of course be available to tourists of the future. The aim of ecotourism is to reduce the impact that tourism has on naturally beautiful environments. The idea is to allow tourists to visit areas of natural beauty, see rare animals and plants, and appreciate traditional cultures - while at the same time protecting the natural environment and minimising damage to the land and local people.

    Ecotourism is actually a type of sustainable development. The ecotourist approach includes:
    •ensuring that tourism activities do not exploit the natural environment or local communities
    •the strict planning of tourist developments
    •making sure that infrastructure improvements benefit local people and not just tourists, and
    •consultation with local communities on planned developments
    Ecotourism now has the backing of the United Nations, which made 2002 the "International Year of Ecotourism".

    Guidelines for ecotourists
    Ecotourism sets out guidelines for how tourists should behave when visiting fragile environments. These include:
    •protect the environment - keep to footpaths, don't leave litter or start fires.
    •avoid interfering with wildlife - don't scare or feed the animals.
    •protect resources - don't take too many showers or use air conditioning.
    •support local communities - stay in locally owned accommodation, buy produce from local people.
    •eat local food and drink - avoid products that have been imported from MEDCs.
    •respect local customs and traditions - some communities are offended if tourists wear inappropriate clothes in religious establishments, strip off on the beach or behave in a rowdy manner; locals appreciate tourists who try to learn the language and show interest in their culture.
    Increasing numbers of people are attracted by ecotourism. These tourists appreciate remote locations, small numbers of tourists and less sophisticated facilities. If the resort becomes over-developed then these people will choose alternative destinations.

    #11VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:06
    2. The Language to talk about them:

    2.1 Introducing Examples:

    Let us consider some examples.
    Let me give a few examples illustrating ...
    As an example let me mention ...
    To illustrate this point, let's have a look at ...
    Of particular note ...
    As is shown in fig.1 / table 2
    As can be seen in ...
    I'd just like to mention that ...
    Let me digress briefly and explain ...

    2.2 Going into detail:

    This pie chart showsthe proportion of ...
    the percentage of ...
    the number of ...
    the ratio between ...
    The plain segment represents ...
    Exports of ... are represented by the dotted line
    Exports of ... are marked in blue
    Looking at this bar chart you will see / note that
    The figure above / below / on the right / left
    The first column /row

    2.3 Concluding:

    Thebar chart / line graph / table shows that / illustrates how ...

    On the whole / In all / Generally one can say / conclude / argue that ...

    Summing up / Therefore / On the basis of the data it can be said that ...
    the following conclusions can be drawn ...

    2.4 Prepositions:

    Cigarette prices increased by 10c.
    Cigarette prices increased to $ 3,50.
    There was a price increase of 10c.
    #12VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:07
    Report structure

    As requested at the Board meeting of 18 April, her is my report.
    The report will discuss/consider/describe/analyse/review …
    The report is based on …
    I have divided the report into three sections.
    The purpose of the report ist to suggest ways to …..

    Eventuell Background

    The findings/figures/ results/investigations show that ….
    It appears that ….. This has led to a situation where…
    The graph/table shows that…

    I (would like to) suggest/recommend that …
    My specific recommendations are as follows.

    Please have a look at the report and let me have your comments.
    Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions.
    #13VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:07

    The house of state ist he President. He is at the same time head of the Administration and commande-in-cheaf of the armed forces. The term of office is 4 years. The President can serve a maximum of 2 terms. His name is George W. Bush.

    The Executive Branch

    The executive branch of the American government is the president, the Vice President and the Administration. The members of the Administration are called Secretaries and are responsible for one department. They execute the laws.

    President’s Cabinet
    The function of the Cabinet is to advise the President on matters relating to the duties of their respective offices. Normally they have a meeting with the president every week.

    The 15 Secretaries from the executive departments are appointed by the President, and they must be confirmed by a majority vote (51 votes) of the Senate.

    Comparison to Austria
    The US President is head of state and head of government, different to Austria where the head of the state is Heinz Fischer and the head of the government is Alfred Gusenbauer. So the US-President combines the functions of the Austrian federal president and the federal chancellor.

    The Legislative Branch
    The legislative branch of the American government is the Congress. It consists of the House of Representative and the Senat. The make the laws.

    The primary duty of Congress is to write, debate, and pass bills, which are then passed on to the president for approval.
    Every two years, voters vote for all 435 representatives and a third of the senators.

    The House of Representatives
    “The House” consists out of 435 members. Each member represents an area of a state, known as a congressional district. The number of representatives is based on the number of districts in a state. Each state is guaranteed one seat.

    The Senate
    The Senate is made up of 100 members in the Senate. The Constitution states that the vice president has formal control over the Senate and is known as the president of the Senate.

    Comparison to Austria
    The House of Representatives could be compared with the National Council and the Senate is similar as the Federal Council in Austria. There is a difference between the quantity of members but they have similar powers and duties.

    The Judicial Branch
    The judicial branch of the American government is the Supreme Court. There are 9 judges, who serve a life term. It is their duty to watch over the constitution.

    The Supreme Court
    The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States.

    The 9 judges are elected by the President and they have to be accepted by the Senate. Normally they work for lifelong terms, during good behavior.


    The President and the Vice President of the United Sates are elected for a 4 year term.
    People directly vote for the candidate who acts for the party. People just vote for candidate who stands for his party. The two most popular parties in America are the Republicans and the Democrats. As America is divided into 50 states, every state votes on his own. How many members a state has in the House of Representatives depends on the population of the state. If you vote for a candidate you automatically also vote for an Electoral College member who votes for the president. So you vote for the candidate but indirectly you vote for an Electoral College member. However, this Electoral College member belongs to a party. The Senate and the House consists of 538 people and are called the Electoral College.

    Political Systems: Austria vs. USA The aim of this report is to describe the political system of Austria and to explain the differences to the US political system. In Austria we have a parliamentary democracy. Our political system is built out of three different branches, like in America. They are called the legislative, the executive and the judicial branch. In general the legislative branch is the parliament, which consists out of the national council and the federal council. The national council has 183 members that are elected every 4 years directly by the citizens. The federal council has 64 members that are elected every 6 years. The members represent their provinces. So the Austrian parliament could be compared with the US-Congress. They nearly have the same duties. One difference is that the Austrian parliament is not in charge of questions of a war and the US-Congress is. As well as in the USA the president of Austria is the head of the state and the head of the armed forces but in Austria his main function is to represent our country. The president is a part of the executive branch, just as the federal chancellor. He is the head of the cabinet that can be compared with the US-cabinet. The chancellor is the “amost powerful man” of Austria. The members of the cabinet are called ministers different from the USA. Last but not least there is the judicial branch. This branch consist out of the supreme constitutional court, the supreme administrative court and the supreme judicial court. The first is in charge of checking the laws. The administrative court deals with matters affecting the legality of administration. The judicial courts include 4 higher provincial courts, 17 provincial and district courts, and about 200 local courts. In Austria you are allowed to vote with 18 years at the national chamber elections, like in the USA but in some provinces at the provincial government elections you are allowed to vote with 16 years. All in all both systems, the Austrian and the American one have advantages and disadvantages but you have to say that the political systems are more or less working in each of the two countries for years now.
    #14VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:08
    What is eco-tourism?

    Ecological tourism (eco-tourism) is a form of tourism which aims are ecologically and socially conscious. Eco-tourism considers the protection of the environment and the way of life of local people. A kind of nature based tourism which involves also the management ecological technologies (solar panels).

    Pros of eco-tourism:

    Eco-tourism is based on natural attractions is a promising means of advancing social, economic and environmental objectives in developing countries and this all is the positive aspect of Eco-tourism! All of this should satisfy your conscience. Finally, you know that if you go on eco-tourism you do the nature and the local people a favour.

    Cons of eco-tourism:

    Eco-tourism is the world fastest growing sector of tourism, so there is the danger of mass tourism. To set up eco tourism resorts should be control by the native people. But at the moment banks and governments are in favour of building these eco-resorts and eco-hotels. Generally, most ecological communities are oppressed by the government and the industry, because they corrupt the idea of eco-tourism for more profit. It is as destructive as any other industry. The Governments in developing countries wants to modernize and this is not compatible with conservation. This comes to destruction of the rural villages. So native people have to leave their houses and homeland to create areas for the new trend. Also the employment of local people is not ensured. It is hard for the local community to control the eco-tourism! Finally, eco-tourism is a rip-off, because tourists pay in general more than it is worth.

    #15VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:08

    For Multinationals:

    •Offers employment to local workers
    •Promotes peace internationally
    •Creates sense of community crossing international borders
    •Allows entire world to improve standard of living
    •Gives access to quality products regardless of location
    •Promotes economic stability
    •Raises standard of living for regions involved in production
    •Gives local economies new economic opportunities
    •Fact of life which needs to be accepted
    •Reflects global economy

    Against Multinationals

    •Ruins local economies
    •Depletes local work forces by drawing to metro centres
    •Stifles cultural growth and expansion on local level
    •Provides little help with problems which are local in nature
    •Creates cultural homogenization
    •Too big, little interest in the individual
    •Gives political power to outside interests
    •Creates economic instability by being subject to the whims of the global economy
    •Replaces traditional values with materialistic values
    •Makes local economies subject to mass layoffs
    #16VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 08:52

    Firstly, voting in the United States is based on a two party system. Every president since 1852 has been either a Republican or a Democrat. In the U.S., a “single-member district system” applies. The candidate who gets elected is the one who gets the highest number of votes in their respective state. The head of state is the President. He is at the same time head of the Administration and commander in chief of the armed forces. The term of office is 4 years. The President can serve a maximum of two terms. His name is George W. Bush.
    Secondly, Austria is a federal republic comprised of independent federal states: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vienna and Vorarlberg. Austria is a federal republic state with a parliamentary democracy. The federal legislation is exercised by the national council together with the Upper House of Parliament - the two chambers of Parliament. In Austria we have a Federal President his name is Heinz Fischer and he is elected for a six year term and is the official representative of the country. The President can also serve a maximum of two terms.
    First of all, I would like to inform you about the three branches. In U.S., the legislative branch of the American government is the Congress. It consists of the House of Representative and the Senate. They make the laws.
    Secondly, the executive branch of the American government is the President, the Vice President and the Administration. The members of the Administration are called Secretaries and are responsible for one department. They execute the laws.
    Finally, there is the judiciary branch of the American government is the Supreme Court. There are 9 judges, who serve a law term. It is their duty to watch over the constitution.
    By comparison, in Austria the Parliament consists of 2 chambers, the National-, and the Federal Council. They make the laws.
    Next, the executive branch is the Federal Government. It consists of ministers, they execute the laws. The Head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor, his name is Wolfgang Schüssel.
    Finally, in comparison to the USA in Austria the judiciary branch is the three supreme courts: the Highest Court of Appeal, the Constitutional Court and the Administrative Court. The judges watch that everything is done according to the constitution.

    #17VerfasserTimmy16 Nov. 07, 09:11
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