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It must have something to do with resurfacing of the joint before placing a form of cap over the femoral head. This cap is the implant (Endoprothese), so what would be the full expression - Oberflächenerendoprothese ?
All the hits I got say "Oberflächenendoprothese" without "er" in the middle of the word.
It's ususaly to find in combination with information about knee surgery, so maybe sites on this topic in English can offer the translation.
The OP mentions the femoral head, so it refers to the hip joint rather than the knee. A bit more context or a full sentence would help – is this a total joint replacement or, as I suspect, a resurfacing arthroplasty?
Modern hip-resurfacing systems involve placing a non-cemented porous metal cup into the hip socket and cementing a metal cap onto the femoral head. This results in an articulating metal-on-metal surface (IMAGE 3).
In which case it refers to the femoral head component (or cap) and the acetabular component (or cup) of the hip-resurfacing system -- an all-metal bearing couple: