makeshift (adj.) - behelfsmäßig, provisorisch, notdürftig
makeshift (n.) - der Notbehelf, der Behelf, der Lückenbüßer, die Notlösung, das Provisorium, zeitweiliger Lückenbüßer, das Behelfsmittel, die NothilfeDictionary: makeshift
stopgap (n.) - das Provisorium, der Lückenbüßer, die Notlösung, die Verlegenheitslösung, die ÜberbrückungDictionary: stopgap
rough-and-ready (adj.) - raubeinig, provisorisch, zusammengepfuscht, schlecht und recht
rough and ready - ungehobeltDictionary: rough ready
to cobble sth. ⇔ together -etw.[Akk.] zusammenbasteln, zusammenschustern, zusammenstoppelnDictionary: cobble together
impromptu (adj.) - improvisiert
impromptu (adv.) - aus dem StegreifDictionary: impromptu
The key to "makeshift" (adjective) is that it is make-do, stopgap, rough-and-ready, improvised, impromptu, extemporary, thrown-together, cobbled-together, jury-rigged, quick-and-dirty, done at the last minute out of desperation because nothing better was at hand.
(Agalinis)related discussion: makeshift - der Ersatz (kein Plural), Ersatz- - #18
Interimslösung, oder eben auch im Dt. "quick and dirty" ...
grob-, provisorisch ...
mit der heißen Nadel gestrickt ...
husch-pfusch - [Österr.] ...
Haurucklösung ...related discussion: quick and dirty
In manchem Kontext habe ich schon "Russenmethode" und ähnliche Verbindungen mit "russisch" gehört ...
Wenn zum Beispiel eine Sicherung nicht ersetzt, sondern gebrückt wird.
Wenn etwas eben einfach zum Laufen gebracht wird, ohne Rücksicht auf Standards oder Sicherheit. (judex)
"nicht schön aber schnell"
"Mit der heißen Nadel gestrickt" (hh)related discussion: quick and dirty - #3
jury-rigged - ...
1.1 (North American) Makeshift; improvised.'jury-rigged classrooms in gymnasiums’https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/...
(From a long discussion on 'jury-' vs. 'jerry-')
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition (2003) says that jerry-rigged
goes back only to 1959. It speculates that the term is an amalgam of jury-rigged
(dating to 1788) and jerry-built
(dating to 1869). The 'jury' in 'jury-rigged' doesn't involve a panel of one's peers, however; it means "makeshift" and appears in the Middle English 'jory saile' meaning "makeshift sail." ...
So whereas jury-rigged
suggests "improvised in an emergency," jerry-built
signifies "very shoddily constructed."
The much later jerry-rigged
splits the difference ..., but perhaps tends a bit closer to jerry-built
than to jury-rigged
. . .
... Ernest Weekley, An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English (1921), remarks:
"I conjecture that jerry-built
may be for jury-built,
the naut. 'jury', as in 'jury-mast', being used for all sorts of makeshifts and inferior objects, e.g. jury-leg,
wooden leg, jury-rigged, jury meal,
etc. Its early connection with Liverpool, where 'jerry-building' is recorded in a local paper for 1861, makes naut. origin likely. ..."
. . .
As for the theory that the word is of Gypsy origin ..., we have this item from Barrere & Leland, Dictionary of Slang, Jargon & Cant (1897):
"Jerry. This word is common among the lower classes of the great cities of England in such phrases as 'jerry-go-nimble', diarrhœa; 'jerry-shop', an unlicensed public-house with a back door entrance, and 'jerry-builder', a cheap and inferior builder who runs up those miserable, showy-looking tenements, neither air-proof nor water-proof. 'Jerry' seems derivable from the gypsy 'jerr' or 'jir' (i.e., 'jeer'), the rectum, whence its application to diarrhœa, a back door, and all that is contemptible. From the same root we have the Gaelic 'jerie', pronounced 'jarey', behind; the French 'derrière'."
. . .
I took a quick stab at an Ngram comparing jury-rig, jury-rigged, jerry-rig, and jerry-rigged; I'm well aware that Ngrams are not definitive, but they do give a good overview. "Jury-rigged" is by far the most common of the four constructions. "Jerry-rig" and "jerry-rigged" don't seem to have come into use until after World War II; I speculate that that may have been due to "Jerry" as a slang term for "German".
According to the American Heritage dictionary, "jury-rig" comes from "jury-mast" (a temporary replacement), which probably came from Old French ajurie,
I don't think we can say that either "jury-" or "jerry-" is correct or incorrect – they're clearly both in common use – but "jury-rigged" is both older and more commonly used.
Edit: addressing a secondary question within the question - "rigging a jury" (more commonly called "jury tampering") has nothing to do with a temporary repair; that's a different meaning of both "jury" and "rig."https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/1...
(The entire discussion has several other parts worth reading, too long to copy here.)