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'Red Gold' redirects here, for the Australian timber see Toona australis
Rose gold is a gold and copper alloy widely used for specialized jewelry due to its reddish colour. It is also known as pink gold and red gold. Because it was popular in Russia at the beginning of the nineteenth century it is also known as Russian gold, although this term has become somewhat rare.
Since it is an alloy, there is no such thing as "pure rose gold"; pure gold is yellow and pure copper is reddish.
Although the names are often used interchangeably, the difference between red, rose, and pink gold is the copper content: The higher the copper content, the stronger the red coloration. A common alloy for rose gold is three-quarters gold and one-quarter copper.
Rose gold is also the name of a commonly-used finish in bell interiors of musical instruments. It consists of a very thin plating of copper over a layer of silver. No actual gold is used.
 Different karat alloys
The highest karat version of rose gold is also known as crown gold, which is 22 karat. A picture of some coins of this alloy can be found here: 22k crown gold coins. 22k rose gold Lord of the Rings coins.
18 karat rose gold may be made of 25% copper and 75% gold. For 18 karat rose gold, typically about 4% silver is added to the 75% gold and 21% copper to give a rose colour. Pictures of this alloy here: 18k rose gold diamond rings.
14 karat red gold is often found in the Middle East and contains 41.67% copper. Pictures of this alloy here: 14k rose gold jewelry.
9 karat red gold.