It's not really possible to say without more context, is it?
Normally, self-consciousness means being self-conscious, that is, embarrassed. So it ought to mean something like Verlegenheit.
However, it could be that the writer just used an ambiguous word without realizing it and did in fact mean something like 'racial consciousness' or 'racial awareness,' in which case it would be more like Bewusstsein. (But not necessarily Selbstbewusstsein, which is also ambiguous and can mean self-confidence, right?) There should be discussions in the archive on terms such as consciousness-raising, which don't lend themselves very easily to translation into German, for all these reasons.
On racial, Rasse, etc. it's also worth reading (several) previous forum discussions.