As we might expect, there are already a fair number of entries already in LEO, including
hard shoulder, shoulder, side-strip, verge
Abstellstreifen, Bankett, Bankette, Seitenstreifen, Standspur
soft shoulder - unbefestigten Randstreifen
'Side-strip' I've never heard of. 'Verge' I believe is BE, where AE would have 'shoulder,' or perhaps 'median' (the ditch/strip in the center) or 'bar pit' (the ditch to the side). 'Hard shoulder' seems semi-BE but also usable in AE. However, I'd probably say, and would suggest adding, 'shoulder lane.' 'Shoulder' is so general that it can be a lane, or a paved strip narrower than a full lane, or the unpaved gravel/grass part. 'Emergency lane' or 'breakdown lane' should be understandable, though neither is very common in AE to my knowledge.
LEO also has curb/kerb = Seitenstreifen; is that really true, or should it be 'curb lane'?
And is lay-by/wheel track = Standspur true? For me, a lay-by isn't the same as a long, ongoing shoulder lane, it's just a short pull-out space no longer than one or two cars.