If the question is about the English translation, "short-time" is not used, at least in the US.
"Part-time" denotes less than 40 hrs/wk generally, though it may be interpreted as less than 35 in some areas, but it does not indicate the duration of the job.
"Short-term" indicates that the job is of limited duration, be it days, weeks, or months, but is not open-ended employment. It does not imply that it is part-time at all, only that it is for a limited, usually specific, period of time.
A "temporary job", from the perspective of the employer, is one where the temporary employee may be filling in for someone who is sick, or could be a short-term job for a specific task. From an employee's perspective, it could be a full-time open-ended job, but not one the employee is interested in keeping, but is only kept until they can find something better.
"McJob", though a recently-coined term, implies a trivial job, not necessarily part-time, not necessarily short-term, but one that requires no real skills, has little future, usually doesn't pay well, and again, is usually only kept until something better comes along. This seems to be the closest to "geringfügige Beschäftigung" in my mind, though it's a new term to me.